Welcome to...

The Science of Sprout Nutrition



Here you will find a list of documents regarding nutrition in sprouts. These documents have been gathered from around the web. We give credit whenever possible. We can not substantiate everything, but we have been fairly picky about what we put here. We encourage you to go out there and search for more information.

Besides searching the internet, you might also visit these sites....
United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)
International Sprout Growers Association (ISGA)

All of the text to these documents is on this page. It's a very long page!
Following a link will take you to the point on the page where the document is pasted.
To return to the top of the page, please use your browser's Back Button.

Bean Sprouts

Rejuvenation and Protein Revolution in Your Kitchen

Proteins in Bean Sprouts

Sprouted Soybeans and Diabetes

Nutritional Advantages of Sprouts

Brassica Sprouts

Broccoli Could Help Heal the Brain

Broccoli May Help Protect Against Resperitory Problems

Each Sprout May Contain as Many Phytochemicals as an Entire Plant

Inhibition of Urinary Bladder Carcinogens by Broccoli Sprouts

Cancer Protection Compound Abundant In Broccoli Sprouts
this is a news clip about Johns Hopkins University's Original Findings on Broccoli Sprouts - (this link opens pdf)

Eat Your Broccoli: Study Finds Strong Anti-Cancer Properties In Cruciferous Veggies

Broccoli-derived Chemicals To Prevent Prostate Cancer

Eating Broccoli May Keep Prostate Cancer Away Study Suggests

From And For The Heart, My Dear Valentine: Broccoli

Grain, Nut and Seed Sprouts

Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats

Nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting

Germination of Peanut Kernels to Enhance Resveratrol Biosynthesis

Toxicological and nutraceutical assessments of peanut sprouts

Studies on germination conditions and antioxidant contents of wheat grain

Grass, Greens and Leafy Sprouts

Are Buckwheat Greens Toxic?

Dietary phytoestrogens

Health Benefits of Sprouts

The Natural Abundance of L-Canavanine, an Active Anticancer Agent, in Alfalfa

Pets and Sprouts

Adverse Food Reactions - Birds

Guinea Pig Diet

Multiple Sprouts and Miscellaneous Bits

Antioxidants in Vegan Diet and Rheumatic Disorders

Mystery Solved: How Bleach Kills Germs

Simplified Method for Canavanine in Seeds and Sprouts

Choline: Food for Thought - The Role of Choline in Our Bodies and Brains

Enzyme Nutrtion (this is one of our favorites)

Measuring Effects of Music, Noise, and Healing Energy Using a Seed Germination Bioassay

Stomach of Humans

A Healthy Perspective of Sprouts (another favorite of ours)

Nutrients in Seeds and Sprouts of Alfalfa, Lentils, Mung Beans, and Soy Beans

Food Sources of Phyto-Oestrogens and Their Precursors in Europe

Sprouts for Optimum Nutrition

Kirlian - Aura Photography of Lentil Sprouts

The Influence of Germination on the Nutritional Value of Wheat, Mung Beans and Chickpeas

Nutrition Tables

Sprout Nutrients

Alfalfa Sprouts

Lentil Sprouts

Mung Bean Sprouts

Pea Sprouts

Pinto Bean Sprouts

Radish Sprouts

Soy Bean Sprouts

Wheat Sprouts

 

The Documents

Rejuvenation and Protein Revolution in Your Kitchen
by Marilyn Diamond ©2003

Why not be the first in your group to look like you just came from one of those $25,000 health spa experiences that took twenty-five pounds and twenty-five years off your life?

All you have to do is eat sprouts for protein.
Sprouts for protein? Who ever heard of that?

It's not a fad, really. Before we had fire, we knew the value of sprouting grains, legumes and seeds. We knew instinctively that Nature had created them as potent nutritional bundles of health and energy. Without science at our disposal to tell us what we needed, we automatically germinated and sprouted these concentrated natural sources of vitamins, minerals, enzymes and amino acids. We built our bodies on them.

Hung up on protein?
Amino acids are proteins in their most digestible form. Pound for pound, Lentils and other sprouted beans give you as much protein as red meat, chicken or fish, with none of the fat, cholesterol, hormones, anti-biotics, and dangerous rendered feed residues found in animal proteins today.

Not to mention the cost.
The Lentils and other beans you sprout in your kitchen cost just pennies per pound. Think about this next time you pull $10.00 out your wallet for a small package of skinless, boneless chicken breasts or fish fillets.

Do you want to lose weight? Do you want to rejuvenate?

Just this month, try something different. Grow fresh protein in your kitchen.
Simply purchase a pound of red or green Lentils or Mung beans. You'll find them in packages in your supermarket or in bulk in your favorite natural food store.
Measure out about a cup and soak them overnight in a covered container. Drain them in your colander and rinse them well to be sure you washed off all the natural inhibitors that keep them from sprouting until you need them to sprout. Now leave them right in the colander, on your kitchen counter, spreading them out a little so they don't clump together.
And watch what happens.

In only a few hours to just about a day, Lentils and Mung beans will start to grow little tails. As they begin to sprout, rinse them occasionally, and you'll see a miniature, kitchen garden of tiny, power-packed, living plants. When the tails are just barely visible, place the sprouts in an airtight container and store them in your fridge. They'll continue to sprout more slowly.

If rejuvenating weight loss is your goal, this is the clean, fat-free, practically instantly-absorbed protein you want for a beautiful body.

Now once, or twice a day, if you're motivated, add your sprouts to your salad. I say twice a day, because, like me, you may love this revolutionary high-protein, power-packed meal so much, you'll occasionally want it that often.

Not only for the slenderizing protein, but also for the abundance of vitamins and minerals, in readily available, economical form.

Here's how I make one of my REVOLUTIONARY HIGH PROTEIN SALADS:
I mix my dressing directly into a large salad bowl, using twice as much fine quality olive oil as lemon juice, and adding some coarse Celtic sea salt, whisking this mixture into a creamy slenderizing dressing.
Now I add plenty of ripe, sliced tomatoes and some chopped basil, mint and thyme. The tomatoes and herbs macerate while I prepare the rest of the salad. I finely chop my favorite greens - baby spinach, mesclun, baby lettuces, romaine, butter or Boston lettuce, so they absorb lots of the dressing. I thin-slice unpeeled cucumbers and radishes. They add the silicon and sulfur I need for healthy hair, skin and nails. Sometimes, I toss in lots of oil cured olives, high in protein and fatty acids, and low in salt.
Time to add the sprouts from my kitchen harvest, about 1/2 to one cup per person.
Time to toss and toss to insure my REVOLUTIONARY HIGH PROTEIN SALAD is really well blended and combined. It should be like a live chop suey. I serve an ample portion, and eat it slowly, chewing well to appreciate the textures and flavors of living protein for my living body.

Are you sick and tired of how the years take their toll on your health? Are you bored and frustrated with all the confusing and contradictory diet fads and trends? Would you enjoy having so much energy you practically never run out? How about having the confidence to know each time you sit down to the dinner table that you're preventing, rather than causing disease?

Proteins
By Mayer and Poljakoff-Mayer

They concluded that during germination in the dark proteins are broken down into amino acids. In the germination process plants synthesize some new protein from carbohydrates and fats.

Nandi concluded that there was an increase in the total amount of amino acids. The total content per Mung bean rose on the average from 25% in dry seed to 37% in the (dried) sprout. A similar increase was observed in the sprouted Soy bean.

Virtanen noted that in Pea germination there is a rapid synthesis of new amino acids. One of the easiest proteins to assimilate is chlorophyll.

Heat kills protein. There is a 50% loss of lysine while sprouting seeds increases the quality of the protein.

 

Soaked and germinated Glycine max (Soy Bean seeds) is highly effective blood sugar regulator

Natural Product Radiance, Sep-Oct 2005, ISSN 0972-592X,
Patents (PCT) WO2004/096250, 904/Del/2002 and 663/Del/2003.
Dr. Manju Pathak, B-506, PMO Apartments, C-58/20,Sector-62,
Noida-201301, India.

Abstract

Glycine max seeds when soaked and germinated, become highly effective blood sugar regulator. This was observed in 35 volunteer type-II diabetes patients. All patients except one were taking oral hypoglycemic drugs (OHG) to control their elevated blood sugar level before they started taking soaked and germinated Soy Bean seeds as a medicine to control their blood sugar. These patients stopped taking OHG during the period of investigation and took only soaked and germinated Soy Bean seeds as a medicine to control their high blood sugar level. It was observed that soaked and germinated Soy Bean seeds are more effective than the OHG. Out of these 35 patients the blood sugar of 22 patients were observed for three months. Out of these 22 patients 4 patients got revived. The high efficacy of such seeds could be because of the following reasons: (1) synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) in Glycine max seeds during germination, (2) synthesis of D-chiro inositol during germination and (3) action in synergy of many phytochemicals synthesized/enhanced during germination, which might be making Glycine max seeds, a potent antioxidant.

Introduction

Diabetes is a multidimensional, complex and varied symptom physiological disorder. It is a disease where the sugar level of the blood increases. This research is about an invention of a highly effective blood sugar regulating product from Soy Bean seeds. The aim of this research is to develop a natural product more effective than OHG and free from harmful side effects on the health of diabetes patients.

Subjects, materials and methods:

35 volunteer type-II diabetes patients were investigated in two separate groups to see the effect of soaked and germinated Soy Bean seeds on the blood sugar level. 17 patients were included in group-1 and 18 patients were included in group-2. Their random blood sugar were recorded after six hours of food (lunch) when they were taking OHG. All the patients were taking OHG except one patient before the investigation started. During the investigations these patients of both the groups did not take OHG or any other medicine to control their blood sugar except soaked and germinated Soy Bean seeds. These diabetes patients agreed to stop OHG because their blood sugar level was better controlled by this new medicine. Group-1 patients took two doses (each dose of 250 ml) of Soy Bean milk one in the morning before food and one in the evening before dinner as a medicine (table-1& table-1a). Soy Bean seeds were soaked for 8 to 12 hours, soaked seeds were ground in fine paste, a milk was prepared from this paste by adding water into it, finally this milk was heated up till boiling. This boiled milk after getting cooled was filtered. This filtered milk was the final form of medicine for group-1 patients. Group-2 patients took two doses (each dose of 15gms) of dry soaked and germinated Soy Bean powder after mixing it in half glass of lukewarm water: one in morning one hour before lunch and one in evening one hour before dinner. Soy Bean seeds were soaked for 8 to 12 hours, left for 24 hours for germination at room temperature, germinated Soy Bean seeds are dried. These dried seeds were ground in powder and stored as the medicine sample for group-2 patients. In both the groups blood sugar was recorded initially after two hours, followed by other blood sugar measurements after eight hours and twelve hours respectively; then blood sugar was measured once a day; and gradually the frequency of blood sugar measurement was decreased to once a week. Blood sugar was measured for three months in 4 patients of group-1 and in all 18 patients of group-2.

Results:

It was observed that soaking and germination produces high antidiabetes property in simple Glycine max seeds. The production of effective blood sugar regulating property appears to be primarily taking place because of induction of phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) in nodule organogenesis of Glycine max seeds. This natural therapy overcomes the harmful health effects associated with OHG besides being cost effective.

Discussion:

It was observed that their blood sugar was much better controlled than OHG in both the groups of diabetes patients. The results show that this new medicine (soaked and germinated Glycine max seeds) are regulating blood sugar better than OHG. Greater the blood sugar level greater is the fall due to this new medicine. I can think of the following possibilities, which are responsible for the development of the antidiabetes property in Soy Bean seeds during soaking and germination:
1. Synthesis of Phosphatidylinositol 3 Kinase (PI3K) in Soy Bean seed during germination. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is an important component of various receptor tyrosine kinase complexes in mammalian cells. PI3K plays a central role in insulin's metabolic effect. PI3Kcatalyzes the generation of phosphatidyl inositol (3,4,5)triphosphate (PIP(3)). Inhibition of PI3K activity results in blockade of insulin signaling including glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis. This, PIP(3) is a critical mediator of insulin action. Either this Soy Bean PI3K is catalyzing the reactions to facilitate the proper reactions to achieve insulin's physiologic expression or it is helping in synthesis of appropriate phosphatidyl inositol derivative, which might be mediating insulin's physiologic expression. I am evaluating both the possibilities. (ref. 1- 5)
2. Synthesis of D-chiro inositol in Soy Bean seeds during embryo development could be producing antidiabetes property in soaked and germinated Soy Bean seeds. (ref. - 6,7)
3. Enhancement of vitamins during soaking and germination of Soy Bean seed, particularly vitamins of B group (niacin and riboflavin) could be playing important roles. (a) The vitamins enriched soaked and germinated Soy Bean seeds could be acting as good superoxide scavengers. Recent studies report that overproduction of superoxide by the mitochondrial electron transport chain seems to be the first and key event in the activation of all other pathways involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications (ref-8). (b) Intracellular concentration of NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is depleted in diabetes (ref-8) which slows the rate of glycolysis. Niacin, increased during embryo development of Soy Bean seeds, could be increasing the intracellular level of NAD and hence increasing the rate of glycolysis. Vitamins are organic nutrients that are required in small quantities for a variety of biochemical functions, and which generally, cannot be synthesized by the body and must therefore be supplied by the diet.

Apart from the above possible factors on the basis of published research papers, I also think on my own that during diabetes human body might be going to lower energy state and when a diabetes patient takes soaked and germinated Soy Bean powder the energy state of the body goes up. I think this low energy state of the human body is the vital factor for many physiological complications including reduced activation of many enzymes in the body.

Looking at the results it can be concluded that soaking and early germination converts simple Glycine max seeds into an effective blood sugar regulator. This natural therapy overcomes the harmful health effects associated with OHG besides being cost effective.

References

1. Hong Z, Verma DP (1994) A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase is induced during Soy Bean nodule organogenesis and is associated with membrane proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91(20): 9617-21
2. Lochhead PA, Coghlan M, Rice SQ, Sutherland C (2001) Inhibition of GSK-3 selectively reduces glucose-6-phosphatase and phosphatase and phosphoenolypyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. Diabetes 50(5): 937-46
3. Baumgartener JW (2003) SHIP2: an emerging target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 3(4): 291-8
4. Bouzakri K, Roques M, Gual P, Espinosa S, Guebre-Egziabher F, Riou JP, Laville M, Le Marchand-Brustel Y, Tanti JF, Vidal H (2003) Reduced activation of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase and increased serine 636 phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1 in primary culture of skeletal muscle cells from patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 52(6): 1319-25
5. Hori H, Sasaoka T, Ishihara H, Wada T, Murakami S, Ishiki M, Kobayashi M (2002) Association of SH2-containing inositol phosphatase 2 with the insulin resistance of diabetic db/db mice. Diabetes 51(8): 2387-94
6. Larner J (2002) D-chiro-inositol--its functional role in insulin action and Its deficit in insulin resistance. Int J Exp Diabetes Res 3(1): 47-60
7. Guoqiao Jiang, Ammulu Hari Krishnan, Yong-Woong Kim, Thomas J. Wacek, and Hari B. Krishnan (2001) Functional myo-Inositol Dehydrogenase Gene Is Required for Efficient Nitrogen Fixation. Journal of Bacteriology 183 (8): 2595-2604
8. Ceriello A (2003) New insights on oxidative stress and diabetic complications may lead to a "causal" antioxidant therapy. Diabetes Care 26(5): 1589-96

 

Table 1

Effect of 250ml Soaked Soy Bean solution (SSS) on the blood sugar after two hours of its intake

(On group-1 patients)

Patient

Age at detection

of

diabetes

Present Age

Random Blood sugar (after six hours of the lunch) in mg/dl when they were on OHG

Blood Sugar in mg/dl after two hours of intake of  SSS

Reduction in

blood sugar in mg/dl due to SSS

1

45

50

134

123

11

2

63

70

294

109

185

3

36

58

141

110

31

4

68

70

477

409

68

5

46

46

355

290

65

6

45

52

249

172

77

7

43

48

170

140

30

8

37

40

196

106

90

9

38

44

121

104

17

10

36

45

166

123

43

11

40

45

96

75

21

12

43

43

152

115

37

13

40

49

232

214

18

14

38

42

135

84

51

15

40

43

89

63

26

16

43

45

86

116

-30

17

30

37

76

84

-8

OHG = Oral Hypoglycemic Drug

Random Blood Sugar = Blood sugar taken after six hours of food. 

  

Table 1 (a)

The effect of Soaked Soy Bean Solution (SSS) on blood sugar for four months on patients taking SSS  twice a day (250ml per dose) after stopping OHG.

(On group-1 patients)

 

Patients of Table 1

Previous random blood Sugar in mg/dl when the patient was taking OHG medicine for controlling blood sugar

Blood Sugar in mg/dl after the start of SSS as a medicine and after stopping other OHG for controlling blood sugar

Aug 2002

Fasting

Sept 2002

Fasting

Oct 2002

Fasting

Nov 2002

Fasting

 

 

5

Detected Diabetic for the first time in Aug 2002.

355

After 10

Days

121

 

 

103

 

 

109

 

 

106

13

232

134

100

117

126

11

96

89

108

118

106

12

152

118

115

92

108

OHG = Oral Hypoglycemic Drug

Random Blood Sugar = Blood sugar taken after six hours of food

 

Table 2

Effect of Soaked Soy Bean Powder (SSP) on blood sugar after two hours of its intake after mixing it in a half glass of lukewarm water

(On group-2 patients)

 

Patient

Sex

Age at detection of diabetes

Present Age

Random Blood sugar** (after six hours of lunch) in mg/dl when they were on OHG*

Dosage of SSP

in gms

Blood Sugar in mg/dl after two hours of intake of SSP

Reduction in blood sugar in mg/dl due to SSP

1

M

40

46

264

15

165

99

2

M

44

47

315

15

197

118

3

F

44

45

145

7.5

128

17

4

M

45

52

230

15

155

75

5

M

42

42

168

15

98

70

6

M

57

59

235

15

82

153

7

M

45

47

149

15

109

40

8

M

42

47

294

7.5

159

135

9

M

37

51

173

15

106

67

10

M

52

58

237

15

156

81

11

F

37

51

321

15

149

172

12

F

56

58

212

15

147

65

13

M

44

46

316

15

305

11

14

M

51

59

253

15

173

80

15

F

46

51

384

15

294

90

16

M

40

45

191

15

120

71

17

F

43

47

145

7.5

128

17

18

F

48

50

262

15

167

95

OHG = Oral Hypoglycemic Drug

Random Blood Sugar = Blood sugar taken after six hours of food

  

Table 2 (a)

The effect of Soaked Soy Bean Powder (SSP) on blood sugar for three months on patients taking SSP twice a day (15 gms per dose) after stopping OHG.

(On group-2 patients) 

 Patients of Table 2

 

Age

 Previous blood sugar in mg/dl when patients were taking OHG drugs

Blood sugar in mg/dl after patients started SSP only as a blood sugar controlling medicine

After 15 Days

After 1 Month

After 2 months

After 3 months

ADD

ATM

PA

F

PP

F

PP

F

PP

F

PP

F

PP

1

40

40

46

140

264

130

243

112

153

95

210

96

140

2

44

44

47

148

361

135

254

140

232

130

220

122

212

3

44

44

45

150

210

118

145

108

122

85

130

80

120

4

45

45

52

190

235

150

191

134

150

121

146

116

144

5

42

42

42

120

168

110

168

97

151

88

134

73

106

6

57

57

59

188

210

96

150

92

143

84

132

85

124

7

45

45

47

119

149

110

132

87

122

93

144

102

108

8

42

42

47

198

294

179

271

164

258

139

237

152

240

9

37

37

51

106

173

96

173

87

118

106

127

84

120

10

52

52

58

155

237

156

237

157

189

158

190

131

189

11

37

37

51

152

321

148

165

140

188

139

155

126

150

12

56

56

58

174

325

194

310

168

201

175

295

164

210

13

44

44

46

277

316

262

298

251

284

236

273

186

239

14

51

51

59

168

293

174

281

158

264

163

273

157

261

15

46

46

51

221

384

190

35

185

321

156

271

-

-

16

40

40

45

150

191

161

210

134

150

121

146

124

160

17

43

44

47

130

173

107

112

108

122

85

130

80

120

18

48

48

50

156

262

145

232

133

195

121

155

107

164

ADD = Age at Diabetes Detected ATM = Age at Medicine (OHG) Taken for control of the blood sugar

PA = Present Age

 

Nutritional Advantages of Sprouts
Soy Bean Sprouts

It is really only in the past thirty years that "westerners" have become interested in sprouts and sprouting. During World War II considerable interest in sprouts was sparked in the United States by an article written by Dr. Clive M. McKay, Professor of Nutrition at Cornell University. Dr. McKay led off with this dramatic announcement: "Wanted! A vegetable that will grow in any climate, will rival meat in nutritive value, will mature in 3 to 5 days, may be planted any day of the year, will require neither soil nor sunshine, will rival tomatoes in Vitamin C, will be free of waste in preparation and can be cooked with little fuel and as quickly as a ... chop."
Dr. McKay was talking about Soy Bean sprouts. He and a team of nutritionists had spent years researching the amazing properties of sprouted Soy Beans. They and other researchers at the universities of Pennsylvania and Minnesota, Yale and McGill have found that sprouts retain the B-complex vitamins present in the original seed, and show a big jump in Vitamin A and an almost unbelievable amount of Vitamin C over that present in un-sprouted seeds. While some nutritionists point out that this high vitamin content is gained at the expense of some protein loss, the figures are impressive: an average 300 percent increase in Vitamin A and a 500 to 600 percent increase in Vitamin C. In addition, in the sprouting process starches are converted to simple sugars, thus making sprouts easily digested.

Broccoli Could Help the Brain Heal
Bob Rust

A substance found in Broccoli could help preserve the integrity of a barrier protecting the brain following injury, according to an animal study.

Research published in the Journal of Neuroscience suggests the chemical sulforaphane, which is found in Broccoli sprouts and other cruciferous vegetable sprouts, could help boost the condition of the blood-brain barrier if it is damaged.

If the results are translated into humans, the study could come us another boost to Broccoli, which has also been labelled as a superfood due to its high nutrient content.

Jing Zhao and his team looked at how sulforaphane treatment of uninjured and brain-injured rats increased cortical expression of Nrf2-driven genes.

The blood-brain barrier is a membrane structure that acts primarily to protect the brain from harmful chemicals in the blood, while still allowing essential metabolic function.

The researchers found that: "Tight junction proteins are key to maintaining barrier integrity, and they decline after brain injury.

"Sulforaphane attenuated the loss of these proteins as well as the loss of endothelial cells and also reduced the injury-related increase in barrier permeability and brain edema."

The team added that in the rats: "Administration of sulforaphane increased activity of NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE), influencing expression of so-called cytoprotective proteins."

Cruciferous sprouts, such as cauliflower, Broccoli, and rocket have been linked to a series of health boosting arenas in the past.

A study in July suggested that eating more than one serving of Broccoli or cauliflower sprouts a week may reduce the risk of prostate cancer by up to 45 per cent.

Epidemiological and animal studies have shown that diets high in cruciferous sprouts result in less instances of certain cancers, especially lung, colon, breast and ovarian cancer, while the study suggests the veggies may also benefit prostates.

Writing in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, researchers from Canada and the US reported that an increased intake of cruciferous vegetables was associated with a 40 per cent reduction in prostate cancer risk, with Broccoli and cauliflower sprouts singled out as offering most protection.

"High intake of cruciferous vegetables, including Broccoli and cauliflower, may be associated with reduced risk of aggressive prostate cancer," wrote lead author Victoria Kirsh from Cancer Care Ontario.  Sprouts are the most potent stage of a plants life.  Indeed they have many times the amount of sulforaphane as mature plants.

Over half a million news cases of prostate cancer are diagnosed every year world wide, and the cancer is the direct cause of over 200,000 deaths. More worryingly, the incidence of the disease is increasing with a rise of 1.7 per cent over 15 years.

 

Broccoli MAY HELP PROTECT AGAINS RESPRIATORY CONDITIONS LIKE ASTHMA
Rachel Champeau
Medical News Today
3/3/09

Here's another reason to eat your Broccoli: UCLA researchers report that a naturally occurring compound found in Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables may help protect against respiratory inflammation that causes conditions like asthma, allergic rhinitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

Published in the March edition of the journal Clinical Immunology, the research shows that sulforaphane, a chemical in Broccoli, triggers an increase of antioxidant enzymes in the human airway that offers protection against the onslaught of free radicals that we breathe in every day in polluted air, pollen, diesel exhaust and tobacco smoke. A supercharged form of oxygen, free radicals can cause oxidative tissue damage, which leads to inflammation and respiratory conditions like asthma.

"This is one of the first studies showing that Broccoli sprouts - a readily available food source - offered potent biologic effects in stimulating an antioxidant response in humans," said Dr. Marc Riedl, the study's principal investigator and an assistant professor of clinical immunology and allergy at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA.

"We found a two- to three-fold increase in antioxidant enzymes in the nasal airway cells of study participants who had eaten a preparation of Broccoli sprouts," Riedl said. "This strategy may offer protection against inflammatory processes and could lead to potential treatments for a variety of respiratory conditions."

The UCLA team worked with 65 volunteers who were given varying oral doses of either Broccoli or Alfalfa sprout preparations for three days. Broccoli sprouts are the richest natural source of sulforaphane; the Alfalfa sprouts, which do not contain the compound, served as a placebo.

Rinses of nasal passages were collected at the beginning and end of the study to assess the gene expression of antioxidant enzymes in cells of the upper airways. Researchers found significant increases of antioxidant enzymes at Broccoli sprout doses of 100 grams and higher, compared with the placebo group.

The maximum Broccoli sprout dosage of 200 grams generated a 101-percent increase of an antioxidant enzyme called GSTP1 and a 199-percent increase of another key enzyme called NQO1.

"A major advantage of sulforaphane is that it appears to increase a broad array of antioxidant enzymes, which may help the compound's effectiveness in blocking the harmful effects of air pollution," Riedl said.

According to the authors, no serious side effects occurred in study participants receiving Broccoli sprouts, demonstrating that this may be an effective, safe antioxidant strategy to help reduce the inflammatory impact of free radicals.

Riedl notes that more research needs to be done to examine the benefits of sulforaphane for specific respiratory conditions. It is too early to recommend a particular dosage.

Riedl recommends including Broccoli and other cruciferous vegetables as part of a healthy diet.

Each Sprout May Contain as Many Phytochemicals as an Entire Plant
(and there are about 4000 baby plants in a package of sprouts)
 
Green vegetables, high in phytochemicals, prevent certain types of cancer.  For instance, between 1958 and 1960, Sulforaphane was isolated in species of Brassica, Eruca, and Iberis.  In 1992 Sulforaphane was identified as as a strong Phase II enzyme inducer in Broccoli.
 
In 1994 Steve Meyerowitz, in his book  Sprout It!,  points out that sulforaphane, known to prevent cancer, is inherent in Broccoli, kale, turnip, garlic, onion and Chinese cabbage. 
Brassica vegetables are a principal source of antioxidant vitamins.  Sprouts have advantages over mature Broccoli in that they contain higher concentrations of inducers, and the inducers mainly affect phase 2 enzyme systems. Information about the role of each nutrient and phytochemical is of critical importance.
Why do sprouts have higher concentrations of inducers?  There is an inverse relationship between the age of a plant and the amount of glucosinolates per gram that it contains. 
 
In 1976, in Van Etten, et al. write of Brassica Olerecea,  “Total glucosinolate content within each variety tends to be inversely proportional with head size.”  Van Etten, C.E., Daxenbichler, M.E., Kovolek, W.F., Williams, P.H. 1976.  Glucosinolates and derived products in Cruciferous vegetables.  Analysis of the edible part from 22 varieties of cabbage.  J. Agr. Food Chem 24:453.
 
Other information about this has been available for some time:
 
“The maximum amounts (of glucosinolates) were found in seeds germinated for 3 days, and the amounts thereafter progressively decreased.” Kondo, H., Kawaguchi, T., Naoshima, Y., and Nozaki, H. Changes in Volatile Components of Rape Seeds (Brassica napus L.) during Germination. Agric. Biol. Chem. 1985, 49, 217-219.
 
In the much touted by the press Broccoli research by Johns Hopkins, they tested the leaves of mature SAGA (a variety of Broccoli) for sulforaphane.  They reported that the older sample had 3,030 units, while the younger sample had 16,700.  When they tested the whole plant, the older sample had 4,170 units, while the younger sample had 33,000.  See 2nd chart on page 2397. Zhang et al., "A major inducer of anticarcinorgenic protective enzymes from Broccoli: Isolation and elucidation of structure", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, vol. 89, pp. 2399-2403, Mar. 1992.

Broccoli doesn't produce sulforaphane until the plant goes to seed.  When it goes to seed, it sends up a shoot high above the head of Broccoli plant.  That shoot, called a silique, has pods coming off that look like Pea pods.  The seed is within the pods. At this stage the plant is not marketable as a food product.
 
Broccoli and other brassica seeds are loaded with glucosinolates, including Sulforaphane. 
 
When one of those seeds is planted, it contains about same amount of many of the glucosinolates as was originally in the seed.  But the glucosinolates are diluted as the plant picks up water and increases in weight.  They are still there, in about the same amount, but now instead of eating a seed to get them, you have to eat the entire plant. 
 
So why not just eat the seed?  Well you could, but sprouts are more nutritious and many seeds don't digest well.  Besides, they taste horrible.
 
When you eat a sprout, you are eating the entire plant at a very young age.  That is, you eat the root, stem, and head.  Different glucosinolates are concentrated in different parts of the plant.  So when you buy Broccoli in a store, you are only buying a portion of the plant.  Glucosinolates are still in the ground (in the root), others are in the leaves that are discarded, and some are removed by the grocer of consumer who cuts off the stem. 
 
There are approximately 317,000 seeds per kilogram of seed (144,000/lb).  Figuring an 8:1 yield, there are about 40,000 sprouts in a kilogram of Broccoli sprouts (about 1,125 per ounce).  In each grocery store size package of sprouts there are about 4,000 baby plants, and each one can have as much or more of certain micronutrients as an entire mature plant.    
 
Phytochemicals and functional food components have been associated with the prevention and/or treatment of at least four of the leading causes of death in this country - cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension - and with the prevention and/or treatment of other medical ailments including neural tube defects, osteoporosis, abnormal bowel function, and arthritis (2). The National Cancer Institute estimates that one in three cancer deaths are diet related and that 8 of 10 cancers have a nutrition/diet component. These figures alone suggest that the potential impact of phytochemicals and functional foods our health is worth examining
 
Press hear for research articles relating to glucosinolates and their relationship to seeds, sprouts, crucifer plants, and/or cancer
This is included on SproutNet.com to help promote cancer research with glucosinolates, of which crucifer sprouts, such as Broccoli, cauliflower, kale, etc, are the greatest natural source.

Inhibition of Urinary Bladder Carcinogens by Broccoli Sprouts
Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 29
Munday R, Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Munday CM, Paonessa JD, Tang L, Munday JS, Lister C, Wilson P, Fahey JW, Davis W, Zhang Y.
AgResearch Limited, Ruakura Agricultural Research Center, Hamilton, New Zealand; Departments of Pathology and Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York; Institute of Veterinary, Animal and Biomedical Sciences, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand; The New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research Limited, Lincoln, New Zealand; and Departments of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences and International Health, the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland.

Isothiocyanates are a well-known class of cancer chemopreventive agents, and Broccoli sprouts are a rich source of several isothiocyanates. We report herein that dietary administration to rats of a freeze-dried aqueous extract of Broccoli sprouts significantly and dose-dependently inhibited bladder cancer development induced by N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine. The incidence, multiplicity, size, and progression of bladder cancer were all inhibited by the extract, while the extract itself caused no histologic changes in the bladder. Moreover, inhibition of bladder carcinogenesis by the extract was associated with significant induction of glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 in the bladder, enzymes that are important protectants against oxidants and carcinogens. Isothiocyanates are metabolized to dithiocarbamates in vivo, but dithiocarbamates readily dissociate to isothiocyanates. We found that >70% of the isothiocyanates present in the extract were excreted in the urine as isothiocyanate equivalents (isothiocyanates + dithiocarbamates) in 12 h after a single p.o. dose, indicating high bioavailability and rapid urinary excretion. In addition, the concentrations of isothiocyanate equivalents in the urine of extract-treated rats were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than those in plasma, indicating that the bladder epithelium, the major site of bladder cancer development, is most exposed to p.o. dosed isothiocyanate. Indeed, tissue levels of isothiocyanate equivalents in the bladder were significantly higher than in the liver. In conclusion, Broccoli sprout extract is a highly promising substance for bladder cancer prevention and the isothiocyanates in the extract are selectively delivered to the bladder epithelium through urinary excretion. [Cancer Res 2008;68(5):1593-600].

Cancer Protection Compound Abundant In Broccoli Sprouts, Johns Hopkins Scientists Find
ScienceDaily (Sep. 19, 1997) — Johns Hopkins scientists have found a new and highly concentrated source of sulforaphane, a compound they identified in 1992 that helps mobilize the body's natural cancer-fighting resources and reduces risk of developing cancer.

"Three-day-old Broccoli sprouts consistently contain 20 to 50 times the amount of chemoprotective compounds found in mature Broccoli heads, and may offer a simple, dietary means of chemically reducing cancer risk," says Paul Talalay, M.D., J.J. Abel Distinguished Service Professor of Pharmacology.
Talalay's research team fed extracts of the sprouts to groups of 20 female rats for five days, and exposed them and a control group that had not received the extracts to a carcinogen, dimethylbenzanthracene. The rats that received the extracts developed fewer tumors, and those that did get tumors had smaller growths that took longer to develop.
In a paper published in tomorrow's issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Talalay and his coworkers describe their successful efforts to build on their 1992 discovery of sulforaphane's chemoprotective properties. Work described in the study is the subject of issued and pending patents.
A systematic search for dietary sources of compounds that increase resistance to cancer-causing agents led the Hopkins group to focus on naturally occurring compounds in edible plants that mobilize Phase 2 detoxification enzymes. These enzymes neutralize highly reactive, dangerous forms of cancer-causing chemicals before they can damage DNA and promote cancer.
Sulforaphane "is a very potent promoter of Phase 2 enzymes," says Jed Fahey, plant physiologist and manager of the Brassica Chemoprotection Laboratory at Hopkins, and Broccoli contains unusually high levels of glucoraphanin, the naturally-occurring precursor of sulforaphane.
However, tests reported in the new study showed that glucoraphanin levels were highly variable in Broccoli samples, and there was no way to tell which Broccoli plants had the most without sophisticated chemical analysis.
"Even if that were possible, people would still have to eat unreasonably large quantities of Broccoli to get any significant promotion of Phase 2 enzymes," Talalay says.
Clinical studies are currently under way to see if eating a few tablespoons of the sprouts daily can supply the same degree of chemoprotection as one to two pounds of Broccoli eaten weekly. The sprouts look and taste something like Alfalfa sprouts, according to Talalay.
Talalay founded the Brassica Chemoprotection Laboratory, a Hopkins center that focuses on identifying chemoprotective nutrients and finding ways to maximize their effects. Brassica is a plant genus more commonly known as the mustard family, and includes in addition to Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, kale, cauliflower and turnips.
"Man-made compounds that increase the resistance of cells and tissues to carcinogens are currently under development, but will require years of clinical trials to determine safety and efficacy," Talalay notes. "For now, we may get faster and better impact by looking at dietary means of supplying that protection. Eating more fruits and vegetables has long been associated with reduced cancer risk, so it made sense for us to look at vegetables.
"Scientists currently need to continue to develop new ways of detecting and treating cancer once it is established, but it also makes sense to focus more attention on efforts to prevent cancer from arising," he adds.
Fahey and Yuesheng Zhang, M.D., Ph.D., a postdoctoral fellow, are also authors on the PNAS paper.
Work in Talalay's laboratory is supported by the National Cancer Institute, philanthropic contributions to Brassica Chemoprotection Laboratory, and grants from the Cancer Research Foundation of America and the American Institute for Cancer Research.
Talalay is establishing the Brassica Foundation, a foundation that will test and certify chemoprotective vegetables such as sprouts to raise funds for chemoprotection research.

Adapted from materials provided by HYPERLINK "http://hopkins.med.jhu.edu/"Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions.
MLA
Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions (1997, September 19). Cancer Protection Compound Abundant In Broccoli Sprouts, Johns Hopkins Scientists Find. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 13, 2008, from http://www.sciencedaily.com? /releases/1997/09/970919062654.htm

Eat Your Broccoli: Study Finds Strong Anti-Cancer Properties In Cruciferous Veggies
ScienceDaily (May 18, 2007) — It turns out Mom was right – you should eat your Broccoli. But what Mom may not have known is why Broccoli is so healthy, and how its lesser known, younger offshoot may be a powerful anti-cancer agent.

Researchers at the Linus Pauling Institute at Oregon State University have found that sulforaphane – a compound found in cruciferous vegetables such as Broccoli, bok choy and brussels sprouts – has strong anti-cancer properties.
Even more promising results have been found in Broccoli sprouts. The tiny, thread-like Broccoli sprouts sold at stores next to Alfalfa sprouts have more than 50 times the amount of sulforaphane than found in mature Broccoli.
Emily Ho, a researcher with the Linus Pauling Institute and an assistant professor in the Department of Nutrition and Exercise Sciences at OSU, will describe these dietary inhibitors for cancer prevention at the conference on “Diet and Optimum Health,” organized by the Linus Pauling Institute. The conference will be held May 16-19 at the Hilton Hotel in Portland. Ho will speak at 10:30 a.m. Friday, May 18. 
Ho’s main area of research is on the dietary prevention of prostate cancer. The Asian diet could be a key in this prevention. White males born in the United States have dramatically higher rates of prostate cancer than Asian men. But when Asian men live in the U.S. for five years or more, their rates of prostate cancer rise significantly, Ho says.
Past studies in Ho’s lab have focused on dietary elements in cancer prevention such as green tea and Soy.
In her new study, which was published in the Journal of the Society of Experimental Biology and Medicine, Ho and her colleagues at Linus Pauling Institute looked at cruciferous vegetables. While many cruciferous vegetables have sulforaphane, Broccoli and Broccoli sprouts have the highest amount and thus could be a major player in the prevention of prostate and colon cancer.
Ho said drugs classified as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are being looked at as potentially preventing cancer. She said their research shows that these same effects of inhibiting HDAC might be obtained by consumption of cruciferous vegetables.
“I would say if you’re at all worried about cancer or at high risk of cancer, especially of prostate or colon cancer, then increasing your dietary intake of Broccoli and other vegetables could be a good idea,” Ho said.
“It certainly can’t hurt. And drugs can have negative side effects and be difficult to administer.”
While Ho said the research is not at the point where she can make a specific recommendation on how much Broccoli or bok choy to eat, she personally tries to have two servings of cruciferous vegetables a day.
In human subjects, just eating some Broccoli sprouts on top of a bagel with cream cheese resulted in HDAC inhibition.
“The compound in Broccoli may be one of the strongest anti-cancer fighters we have,” Ho said.

Adapted from materials provided by HYPERLINK "http://oregonstate.edu/"Oregon State University.

University Of Pittsburgh Studies Broccoli-derived Chemicals To Prevent Prostate Cancer
ScienceDaily (Dec. 26, 2003) — PITTSBURGH, Dec. 22 – Fruits and vegetables are good for overall health, and a newly funded study at the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute (UPCI) may show that certain vegetables, such as Broccoli, also offer protection against prostate cancer.

UPCI researcher Shivendra Singh, Ph.D., professor of pharmacology and urology at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, has received a $1.7 million grant from the National Cancer Institute to study prostate cancer prevention by phytochemicals found in Broccoli called isothiocyanates (ITCs).

"Clearly, what we eat has an effect on the development of diseases such as cancer," said Dr. Singh, also co-leader of UPCI's cancer biochemoprevention program. "However, we know little about the mechanisms by which certain edible plants like Broccoli help our bodies fight prostate cancer and other diseases. Our goal with this study is to better understand the function and relationship of substances in Broccoli that appear to be linked to inhibiting prostate cancer growth."
ITCs are substances in vegetables that are generated when vegetables are either cut or chewed. Previous research has demonstrated that ITCs are highly effective in affording protection against cancer in animal models induced by carcinogens including those in tobacco smoke. Epidemiological research also has shown that increased consumption of vegetables that contain ITCs significantly reduces the risk for prostate cancer.
Dr. Singh's laboratory has found that some naturally occurring ITCs are highly effective in suppressing the growth of human prostate cancer cells at concentrations that are achievable through dietary intake of cruciferous vegetables such as watercress and Broccoli. In his current study, Dr. Singh seeks to further define the mechanisms by which ITCs induce apoptosis, or cancer cell death, to provide insights into the key structural relationships between ITCs and cell processes and to identify potential biomarkers that could be useful for future intervention trials involving ITCs.
"The knowledge we gain from this study will help guide us in formulating practical and effective nutritional strategies for the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer," said Dr. Singh. In addition to studies involving Broccoli, Dr. Singh also is examining the effect of garlic on prostate cancer prevention.
In the United States, only 23 percent of adults eat five or more fruits and vegetables per day.

Adapted from materials provided by HYPERLINK "http://www.upmc.edu/"University Of Pittsburgh Medical Center.

Eating Broccoli May Keep Prostate Cancer Away Study Suggests
ScienceDaily (July 2, 2008) — Eating one or more portions of Broccoli every week can reduce the risk of prostate cancer, and the risk of localised cancer becoming more aggressive.

For the first time, a research group at the Institute of Food Research led by Professor Richard Mithen has provided an explanation of how eating Broccoli might reduce cancer risk based upon studies in men, as opposed to trying to extrapolate from animal models. Prostate cancer is the most common non-skin cancer for males in western countries. The research has provided an insight into why eating Broccoli can help men stay healthy.
For the study men who were at risk of developing prostate cancer ate either 400g of Broccoli or 400g of Peas per week in addition to their normal diet over 12 months. Tissue samples were taken from their prostate gland before the start of the trial and after 6 and 12 months, and the expression of every gene measured using Affymetrix microarray technology.
It was found that there were more changes in gene expression in men who were on the Broccoli-rich diet than on the Pea diet, and these changes may be associated with the reduction in the risk of developing cancer, that has been reported in epidemiological studies.
Previous studies have suggested that the fifty percent of the population who have a GSTM1 gene gain more benefit from eating Broccoli than those who lack this gene. The study showed that the presence of the GSTM1 gene had a profound effect on the changes in gene expression caused by eating Broccoli.
This study fills the gap between observational studies and studies with cell and animal models. While observational studies have shown that diets rich in cruciferous vegetables may reduce the risk of prostate cancer and other chronic disease, they do not provide an explanation of how this occurs. Evidence from animal and cell models has sought to provide an explanation, but these studies are usually based on high doses that would not normally be experienced as part of the diet.
The results of the study suggested that relatively low amounts of cruciferous vegetables in the diet -- a few portions per week -- can have large effects on gene expression by changing cell signalling pathways. These signalling pathways are the routes by which information is transmitted through a molecular cascade which amplifies the signal to the nucleus of the cell where gene expression occurs.
The Norwich-based team are currently planning a larger study with men with localised prostate cancer, and will compare the activity of standard Broccoli with the special variety of high glucosinolate Broccoli used in the current study.
Designer studies for health promotion
"Other fruits and vegetables have been shown to also reduce the risk of prostate cancer and are likely to act through other mechanisms," says Professor Mithen.
"Once we understand these, we can provide much better dietary advice in which specific combinations of fruit and vegetable are likely to be particularly beneficial. Until then, eating two or three portions of cruciferous vegetable per week, and maybe a few more if you lack the GSTM1 gene, should be encouraged."
The work was supported by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC).
Cruciferous vegetables include Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, cabbage, rocket, watercress, garden cress, kale, bok choy, radish, horseradish and wasabi.
The Broccoli used in this study is a high glucosinolate variety. The variety was developed at the John Innes Centre in Norwich, and then licensed to Seminis Inc for commercialisation by Plant Bioscience Ltd.

Journal reference:
Traka M, Gasper AV, Melchini A, Bacon JR, Needs PW, et al. Broccoli Consumption Interacts with GSTM1 to Perturb Oncogenic Signalling Pathways in the Prostate. PLoS One, 3(7): e2568 DOI: HYPERLINK "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0002568"10.1371/journal.pone.0002568
Adapted from materials provided by HYPERLINK "http://www.plos.org/"Public Library of Science, via HYPERLINK "http://www.eurekalert.org/"EurekAlert!

From And For The Heart, My Dear Valentine: Broccoli
ScienceDaily (Jan. 24, 2008) — Wishing your Valentine good heart health on February 14 -- and throughout 2008?

Then consider the food some people love to hate, and hand over a gift bag of Broccoli along with that heart-shaped box of chocolates. Researchers in Connecticut are reporting impressive new evidence that eating Broccoli may protect against heart disease.
Researchers have known for years that Broccoli is a rich source of antioxidants, vitamins, and fiber that may protect against cancer, Dipak K. Das and colleagues note. Other studies also suggest that Broccoli may benefit the heart, although scientists do not know how it works.
Das and colleagues now report evidence on that topic from animal studies. They gave Broccoli extract to lab rats for one month and measured its effects on the rats' heart muscle. Compared to a control group that ate a regular diet, the Broccoli-fed animals had improved heart function and less heart muscle damage when deprived of oxygen. Broccoli's heart-healthy effects are likely due to its high concentrations of certain substances that seem to boost levels of a heart-protective protein called thioredoxin, the researchers note.
The article "Broccoli: A Unique Vegetable That Protects Mammalian Hearts through the Redox Cycling of the Thioredoxin Superfamily"  is scheduled for the Jan. 23 issue of ACS' Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

Adapted from materials provided by HYPERLINK "http://www.acs.org/"American Chemical Society.


Broccoli Could Reverse The Heart Damaging Effects Of Diabetes
ScienceDaily (Aug. 26, 2008) — Researchers have discovered eating Broccoli could undo the damage caused by diabetes to heart blood vessels. 

Professor Paul Thornalley and his team from the University of Warwick have found a Broccoli compound called Sulforaphane. This compound can encourage the body to produce more enzymes to protect the vessels, as well as reduce high levels of molecules which cause significant cell damage.
Past studies have shown that a diet rich in vegetables – particularly brassica vegetables such as Broccoli – is linked to decreased risk of heart disease and stroke. People with diabetes have a particularly high risk of heart disease and stroke and other health impairments, such as kidney disease, are linked to damaged blood vessels.
Professor Thornalley, at the University’s Warwick Medical School, tested the effects of Sulforaphane on blood vessel cells damaged by high glucose levels (hyperglycaemia).
His team observed a significant reduction of molecules in the body called Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Hyperglycaemia can cause levels of ROS to increase three-fold and such high levels can damage human cells. The results of the study showed that Sulforaphane reversed this increase in ROS by 73 per cent.
They also found Sulforaphane activated a protein in the body called nrf2, which protects cells and tissues from oxidative stress by activating protective antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. The study showed the presence of Sulforaphane in human microvascular cells doubled the activation of nrf2.
Professor Thornalley said: “Our study suggests that compounds such as Sulforaphane from Broccoli may help counter processes linked to the development of vascular disease in diabetes. In future, it will be important to test if eating a diet rich in Brassica vegetables has health benefits for diabetic patients. We expect that it will.”
The study was funded by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation International, The Wellcome Trust and the Biotechnological and Biological Sciences Research Council.

Journal reference:
Xue et al. Activation of NF-E2-related factor-2 reverses biochemical dysfunction of endothelial cells induced by hyperglycemia linked to vascular disease. Diabetes, 2008; DOI: HYPERLINK "http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db06-1003"10.2337/db06-1003
Adapted from materials provided by HYPERLINK "http://www.warwick.ac.uk/"University of Warwick.

Tartary buckwheat sprout powder lowers plasma cholesterol level in rats.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2008 Dec;53(6):501-7.
Kuwabara T, Han KH, Hashimoto N, Yamauchi H, Shimada K, Sekikawa M, Fukushima M.
The United Graduate School of Agriculture Sciences, Iwate University.
 
We examined the effects of different types of buckwheat sprouts on the plasma cholesterol concentration, fecal steroid excretion and hepatic mRNA expression related to cholesterol metabolism in rats. Rats were fed a cholesterol-free diet with 5 g of Kitawasesoba common buckwheat sprout powder (KS)/100 g, 5 g of Hokkai T no. 8 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-8)/100 g or 5 g of Hokkai T no. 9 tartary buckwheat sprout powder (HS-9)/100 g of diet for 4 wk. Control rats were fed a diet with alpha-cornstarch instead of sprout powder for 4 wk. There were no significant differences in food intake, body weight, liver weight or cecal contents among the groups. Plasma total cholesterol concentrations in the HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly lower than in the control group, whereas there was no significant difference between the KS and control groups. Fecal bile acid excretion and cecal short-chain fatty acid concentrations in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups were significantly greater than in the control group. Furthermore, fecal matter excretion in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups tended to be increased compared to the control group, with that in the HS-8 group being significantly higher than in the control group. Hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in the KS, HS-8 and HS-9 groups and hepatic HMG-CoA reductase mRNA expression in the HS-9 group were significantly higher than in the control group. The results suggest that tartary buckwheat sprout powder has a serum cholesterol-lowering function by enhancing fecal bile acid excretion through increased fecal matter excretion or the upregulation of hepatic cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase mRNA expression in rats.

Nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting.
Chavan JK, Kadam SS.
Department of Biochemistry, Mahatma Phule Agricultural University, Rahuri, India.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1989;28(5):401-37

Cereal grains form a major source of dietary nutrients for all people, particularly those in the developing countries. However, the nutritional quality of cereal grains and sensory properties of their products are inferior due to lower protein content, deficiency of certain essential amino acids, lower protein and starch availabilities, presence of certain antinutrients, and the coarse nature of the grains. The consumption of sprouted cereals is becoming popular in various parts of the world. Sprouting of grains for a limited period causes increased activities of hydrolytic enzymes, improvement in the contents of certain essential amino acids, total sugars, and B-group vitamins, and a decrease in dry matter, starch, and antinutrients. The digestibilities of storage proteins and starch are improved due to their partial hydrolysis during sprouting. The magnitude of the nutritional improvement is, however, influenced by the type of cereal, seed quality, sprouting conditions, and it is not large enough to account for in feeding experiments with higher animals. In this review, the available literature concerning the nutritional improvement of cereals by sprouting and utilization of sprouted cereals in traditional and processed foods has been compiled and is critically reviewed.

Germination of Peanut Kernels to Enhance Resveratrol Biosynthesis and Prepare Sprouts as a Functional Vegetable.
J Agric Food Chem. 2005 Jan 26;53(2):242-6.
Wang KH, Lai YH, Chang JC, Ko TF, Shyu SL, Chiou RY.
Graduate Institute of Food Science, and Graduate Institute of Biotechnology, National Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan.

Bioactive benefits of resveratrol in the diets have attracted extensive interests of the public. Peanut is one of the potent natural sources of resveratrol. In this study, germination of Peanut kernels to enhance resveratrol biosynthesis and preparation of sprouts as a functional vegetable was conducted. When the rehydrated kernels of three Peanut cultivars were germinated at 25 degrees C and relative humidity 95% in dark for 9 days, resveratrol contents increased significantly from the range of 2.3 to 4.5 mug/g up to the range of 11.7 to 25.7 mug/g depending upon Peanut cultivar. In comparison with the sprout components, resveratrol contents were highest in the cotyledons, slightly lower in the roots, and not detected in the stems. When the sprouts were heated in boiling water for 2 min, resveratrol contents varied in a limited range. Methanol extracts of the freeze-dried sprouts exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl scavenging activity and antioxidative potency against linoleic acid oxidation. These activities increased with an increase of germination time. After 9 days of germination, total free amino acid, sucrose, and glucose contents increased significantly while crude protein contents decreased and the large sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis protein molecules of the kernels were extensively degraded. From a practical viewpoint, it is of potency to prepare Peanut sprouts as a functional vegetable.

Toxicological and nutraceutical assessments of Peanut Sprouts as daily supplements to feed Sprague-Dawley rats for 18 weeks
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Volume 88, Issue 12, Date: September 2008, Pages: 2201-2207
Bo-Si Lin 1, Tu-Fa Lien 2, Mao-Rong Chao 3, Tzu-Yuan Lai 1, Ju-Chun Chang 1, Shieh-Jen Chou 3, Hui-Fen Liao 4, Robin Y-Y Chiou 1 *
1Department of Food Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60083, Taiwan
2Department of Animal Science, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60083, Taiwan
3Department of Veterinary Medicine, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60083, Taiwan
4Department of Biochemical Science and Technology, National Chiayi University, Chiayi 60083, Taiwan
 
Abstract
BACKGROUND
Peanut Sprouts are occasionally consumed by Peanut farmers. To investigate the possibility of introducing Peanut Sprouts as a functional vegetable to the public, an in vivo experiment involving toxicological and nutraceutical assessments was conducted.
RESULTS
Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were fed with Peanut Sprouts as a dietary supplement for 18 weeks. The rats were divided into five groups and fed with different daily supplements, namely 0 g (control), 16.5, 10 or 6 g of sprouts or 2.4 g of kernels. Aflatoxin contents of the sprouts (n = 24) were less than 1 µg kg-1. Body weights of all rats increased with feeding time, and final body weights differed insignificantly among test groups (P > 0.05). Weights of liver, kidney and spleen and organ/body weight ratios varied insignificantly among test groups (P > 0.05). All serum and blood cell determinations differed insignificantly (P > 0.05) among test groups, apart from the observation of a significant lowering of serum triacylglycerol (TG) level in the 10 g sprout group (P < 0.05).
CONCLUSION
In general, no obvious growth hazard or health toxicity was detected. For nutraceutical development, the lowering of serum TG level achieved by appropriate intake of Peanut Sprouts is noteworthy.
Note from SproutNet:  High triacylglycerol (TG) levels are associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease.

Studies on germination conditions and antioxidant contents of wheat grain.
Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2001 Jul;52(4):319-30
Yang F, Basu TK, Ooraikul B.
Department of Agricultural, Food and Nutritional Science, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2P5, Canada.

Germination time and conditions for wheat grain were studied to determine optimum conditions that would maximize the production of antioxidants. Wheat grains were first steeped in water for 24 or 48 h, followed by incubation in the dark for 9 d at 98% RH and 16.5 degrees C. The changes in the concentration of vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, ferulic acid and vanillic acid were monitored over the germination period. Vitamins C and E and beta-carotene were barely detectable in the dry grains. However, upon germination the concentrations of these antioxidant vitamins steadily increased with increasing germination time, reaching their peaks after 7 d at 550 mu/g for vitamin C, 10.92 micrograms/g for alpha-tocopherol, and 3.1 micrograms/g for beta-carotene. Concentrations of ferulic and vanillic acids were also increased, reaching their maxima after 7 d at 932.4 micrograms/g and 12.9 micrograms/g, respectively. The grains steeped for 48 h before germination became wet, sticky, yellow-brown color with acidic smell after 7 d. These results suggested that wheat grains steeped for 24 h and germinated for 7 d would produce the most desirable sprouts with respect to antioxidant concentrations and sensory properties.

Note from Sproutpeople: Some years ago the following article was published online. It states that consuming huge quantities of Buckwheat Greens juice, as he had done, could cause skin sensitivity to the sun. After reading his article we agree that consuming such large amounts is not recommended. We have always promoted moderation in food consumption and that applies here. Buckwheat in small quantities can promote health. Although some people may be sensitive to even small quantities of Buckwheat Lettuce, for most people it is a healthy addition to their diet.  It contains rutin, a bioflavinoid not found in beans or grains, that can help strengthen blood vessels. 

The author of the article makes this statement near the end:
"I would like to make the disclaimer that I am not advising people to stop eating buckwheat. The Latin expression dosis sola facet venenum (the dose makes the poison) attributed to the ancient Romans could be applied here. A small quantity of Buckwheat Greens (or Buckwheat Lettuce as it is often called) in an individual diet could allow for healthy nutritional benefits without the negative effects of large amounts......"

Fear spreads.  Please be careful not to take just anyones claims at face value.  Use your common sense.  Avoid Dogma.  Read the article - thoroughly - and make your own decision.

Are Buckwheat Greens Toxic?
The Complete Original Article
By Gilles Arbour – June 2004

The surprising answer is a clear and unequivocal YES. Due to the growing popularity of sprouts in general, and a widespread ignorance as to the toxic dangers posed by Buckwheat Greens specifically, many people are today suffering unnecessarily. In this article I will describe the toxic effects of ingesting Buckwheat Greens, and I will answer the question of why they are toxic to humans. I will also provide a brief synopsis of what is currently known about this painful phenomenon. And finally, I will recount my own anecdotal experience with Buckwheat Greens.

The basic problem with Buckwheat Greens is that they contain fagopyrin, a naturally occurring substance in the buckwheat plant. When ingested in sufficient quantity, fagopyrin is known to cause the skin of animals and people to become phototoxic, which is to say hypersensitive to sunlight. This condition, specifically known as fagopyrism, occurs when the ingested fagopyrin accumulates under the skin and is subsequently activated by sunlight, resulting in a toxic reaction within the skin. Typically, exposed areas of skin turn pink or red within minutes, and a strong burning sensation accompanies the reaction. Within a few hours the exposed areas usually appear to return to normal, however continue to remain ultra-sensitive to cold water, hot water and to friction. This sensitivity can last for days.

In addition to the burning sensation, people suffering from fagopyrism often complain of feeling a numb, fuzzy, buzzing impression when they scratch or inadvertently hit their hands on something. Sufferers also report that their hands feel painfully cold when placed in cold water or when in contact with a cold object, even if only for a few seconds. Some have had numbing, itching and tickling on the face, nose and ears after sun exposure causing a desire to scratch the skin, thus worsening the condition. The eyes may also become hypersensitive to light. If a large enough portion of the skin is exposed, one may experience dizziness. If a person is forced to remain in the sun for a long period of time, the skin may swell up and remain abnormal for up to several days.

Fagopyrin is not activated by ultraviolet light but reacts to a different portion of the sunlight spectrum. Therefore, the normal application of sunscreen offers no protection at all. Glass, which filters out ultraviolet rays, does not however filter out the reactive range relative to fagopyrin. This means that sunlight coming through home or car windows also causes a phototoxic reaction.

Unlike the shoots of the buckwheat plant, buckwheat groats, or seeds, are not generally problematic because they contain only trace quantities of fagopyrin. Buckwheat groats are commonly sold as kasha or are ground into buckwheat flour, which is used to make soba noodles and buckwheat pancakes. These foods have long been used as staples in many cultures and appear to be perfectly safe. The danger lies not in the grains, but in the mature green buckwheat plants that some animals may ingest, and in the young green shoots, which increasing numbers of health-conscious individuals are consuming. These foods contain large quantities of toxic fagopyrin.

The phenomenon of fagopyrism is already well known in the field of veterinary science, where it has been well documented that animals feeding excessively on buckwheat plants develop skin rashes and other symptoms. However, little or no research has yet been done regarding humans and fagopyrism. This is probably because Buckwheat Greens did not play a significant role in the human diet until very recently. No known cultures have relied on Buckwheat Greens as a staple. Given the growing popularity of juicing green foods however, along with eating sprouts and young shoots, many unsuspecting raw foodists and other health and nutrition enthusiasts have begun to suffer the effects of fagopyrism. Unfortunately, I am one of them, and my story is a perfect example of this growing problem.

My adventure began during the winter of 2002, when my wife and I attended a three-week program at a popular raw food health center in Florida. I hasten to say that we thoroughly enjoyed the program, made new friends, soaked up information, took copious notes, and were hopeful that this new approach to diet and lifestyle would help us to improve the quality of our life and overall health in general.

Along with consuming raw food, one of the many things the center advocated was that we drink four glasses of green juice every day. This green juice was made from equal parts of cucumber, celery, Sunflower Greens and Buckwheat Greens. Following our three-week stay at the center, we remained on the raw food diet and faithfully drank our four daily glasses of green juice. A friend also chose to integrate the green juice into her daily food program. After several weeks, all three of us began to notice tingling in our hands and faces along with markedly increased sensitivity to the cold. Given that winter was at its peak where we live in Quebec, Canada, we thought that our new diet simply demanded a small adjustment period. Assuming that the natural green juice program was safe and healthy, we simply failed to make a connection between the toxic effects we were experiencing and the juice we were consuming. We thought that adding more fatty foods to our diet would help us with the cold and the unpleasant sensations would soon disappear. But they didn’t.

Before long our symptoms worsened to the point where any exposed skin sunburned very easily. I, who was drinking the most juice, became so sensitive to the sun that after a few months I could not be exposed to sunlight for more than a few minutes at a time. The biggest mystery was that even inside my own home, I could not endure sunlight coming through the windows for more than three minutes. It made no difference whether I was inside or outside. Any activity that exposed me to the sun was threatening—even driving my car! If I tried to go anywhere during daylight hours, by the time I reached my destination my hands would be bright red and burning. To manage this, I had to actually put a towel over them while driving. My wife, who was also drinking the juice, though less of it, also felt overly sensitive to sunlight and was unable to stay in the cold without her face and hands itching. Our friend was also experiencing fuzzy, numbing sensations and exaggerated pain whenever she lightly bump her hands. She, too, felt that the sun was “too strong.”

At the time, we did not have a clue that buckwheat could be the cause of our strange symptoms. When I mentioned our problems to leaders at the Florida health center, we were told, “strange things like that happen when people are starting the diet,” and “these minor glitches will soon pass.” I now believe that these problems eventually do go away for most people—but only when they give up the new diet, or at least stop drinking the green buckwheat juice.

Back in March 2002 however, still suffering in ignorance, I began to ask various health advisors and professionals about my symptoms. My medical doctor thought it might be lupus. Fortunately, the test came out negative. A naturopath’s explanation was that it was “toxins coming out” and I was having a “healing crisis.” He told me that enzymes in the raw foods were dislodging deep acidic residues which were then burning the skin. A second naturopathic doctor believed that something was “toxic in my body,” but could not determine what it was. Yet another practitioner suggested that I was not “detoxing” rapidly enough, and said that I should add various supplements to my diet. None of this made much sense to me, and no one seemed to offer a clear solution.

My quest for an explanation lasted many months and was entirely fruitless. All the while, the three of us remained thoroughly baffled, and were even more confused by the fact that our skin sensitivity seemed to improve or diminish every once in a while—for no apparent reason. We kept telling ourselves, in the words of those at the Florida health center, “these minor glitches will pass.” Now, as I think back, I realize that our better, less photo-sensitive days coincided with the times when we had run out of Buckwheat Greens and had left it out of the juice for a few days. But back then, in the winter of 2002, we mistakenly believed that others who were eating the same products were experiencing none of our symptoms. Only later did I discover that even though these folks were eating lots of raw food, their program did not include eating Buckwheat Greens regularly.

After reading that celery contains psoralens, which could cause skin sensitivity, I stopped consuming it. It never occurred to me that another ingredient in the green juice could be the culprit. In an attempt to relieve our symptoms we altered our diet in several other ways. When I read about high chlorophyll food such as wheatgrass causing skin sensitivity, we cut that out. I read something similar regarding citrus fruits and cut them out as well. Alfalfa sprouts are said to contain caravanine, which is suspected of creating lupus like symptoms, so that was also cut out. Someone suggested adding more cooked food to our diet so we tried that. We stopped eating nuts, seeds, avocados and quinoa. We drank more water, exercised and had massage therapy. Nothing worked!

During this time, I was regularly searching the Internet for answers. One day, frantically, I did yet another Google search using the words: “skin,” “sun,” “sensitive,” and “burning.” Solar eczema and/or solar urticaria kept coming up, even though it was described as a rather rare disease. Why would the three of us suddenly develop a rare disease? It did not make any sense. Online, I found a list of foods, herbal remedies, and medical drugs that cause photosensitivity in humans, but we had already eliminated all of the food products and none of us were taking any medical drugs. All roads led to dead ends. I was back at square one.

I thought back to the naturopath who believed that the condition was caused by eating raw food and the subsequent release of acids. Although his explanation simply was not credible, he had mentioned witnessing the same phenomenon with other people eating the same way we did. So I attempted another Google search using the keywords: “raw,” “food,” “skin,” and “sun.” The first link brought me to a message posted in May 2002. It read:

“Since visiting a West Coast Health Institute a year ago, I have developed a skin sensitivity. My skin burns when exposed to the sun and is very sensitive to the cold. For example, if I wash my hands in cold tap water, it feels as if my hands have been in ice water for a long time. My skin is also sensitive to minor bumps. I have been to a team of specialists and had every test run. The doctors say it is something in my diet. I eat almost completely raw. My diet consists of sunflower and buckwheat sprouts, Fenugreek Sprouts, wheatgrass juice, and a variety of other green juices, seed cheese, a variety of nuts and seeds and plant fats. Please help! Has anyone out there had a similar reaction? I would appreciate any ideas.”

I eventually had a telephone conversation with the author of the message. She had found the cause of her symptoms and did not suffer from it anymore. “It’s the Buckwheat Greens,” she said. While it seems painfully obvious now, with the information I have, it was the last thing I would have suspected at that time.

It turned out that she had gone through a process similar to mine for about a year. From the medical doctors, naturopathic doctors to the lupus test, and finally cutting out celery and other food products. Living in the southern part of the United States, it was almost impossible for her to avoid the sun, and she was rushed to the hospital once. In our case, since we were living in Quebec, most of our skin was covered during a large portion of the year so we never experienced the massive reaction that she did. She had contacted some of the top leaders in the raw food movement. They were unable to give her an answer. Then, somewhere in her research she found a note from David Wolfe, a prominent raw food advocate, which mentioned something toxic about buckwheat. She removed the Buckwheat Greens from her diet and improved rapidly. She said that within one week her symptoms were gone.

Following her suggestion we eliminated buckwheat from our diet and within one month the numbing, fuzzy, buzzing feelings in the face and hands disappeared for both my wife and myself. The adverse reaction to cold or hot water was also gone. Reddening of the skin took longer to disappear completely but after two months that problem was gone.

After my telephone conversation, I searched once again with Google, using the words: “sun,” “buckwheat,” and “skin.” A lot of information came up. Dozens of websites mention fagopyrism. Among the most interesting citations was from a message forum written by “Sproutcreek” in the year 2000:

Date: Thu, 27 Jan 2000
Subject: Re: Skin soreness and photosensitivity

Hi Greg,

The "tingles"- skin burning easily from sun exposure and a numbness in the hands accompanied by exaggerated pain if you bang your hand, etc seems to be common among most people who eat too many Buckwheat Greens. It was common among staff and guests at Ann Wigmore's retreat when I worked there. It seemed like you couldn't eat (chew) enough to cause it, but when you juiced it or put large amounts in the blender you exceeded your tolerance level and these strange symptoms appeared. I haven't experienced it or heard of it with any other greens, but I did get the tingles myself along with most others from buckwheat. Do you eat Buckwheat Greens?

MY COMMENTS: In January of 2000, some people were already aware of this. It even had a name: “the tingles”! I was surprised to read that it had been a known occurrence for so long. Why doesn’t anybody talk about it?

There is abundant scientific information about fagopyrism in research material, including on the Internet. However, nearly all of the references are relative to veterinary health care because human consumption of the buckwheat plant is relatively new.

The dictionary on the Internet at http://www.dictionarybarn.com/FAGOPYRISM.php
defines fagopyrism as “Photosensitization, mainly in cattle and sheep, caused by ingestion of buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and characterized by irritation of the skin, oedema, and a serous exudate.”

It is mentioned in the IVIS document available on the Internet at www.ivis.org
A Guide to Plant Poisoning of Animals in North America, A.P. Knight and R.G. Walter (Eds.) Publisher: Teton NewMedia, Jackson WY

“…Some plants contain compounds or pigments that once absorbed from the digestive system induce a direct effect on nonpigmented skin when it is exposed to light…”

“Primary photosensitization develops when animals eat plants containing polyphenolic pigments. These compounds are at highest concentration in the green plant and are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract to circulate in the blood. In nonpigmented skin these compounds react with UV light [note: actually for buckwheat and St John’s wort it reacts with another part of the sunlight spectrum – not the Ultra Violet] to produce radiant energy that oxidizes essential amino acids in the skin's cells. The cells die in the photosensitization process, and the affected skin eventually sloughs off. Two plants associated historically with primary photosensitization are buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), and St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum). Both plants contain polyphenolic pigments capable of causing primary photosensitization.”

“Clinical Signs of Photosensitization
Photophobia, excessive tearing, and swelling, redness, and increased sensitivity of nonpigmented skin initially characterize photosensitization in animals. Affected skin rapidly becomes reddened, painful, and raised above areas of adjacent pigmented skin. Serum often oozes through the affected skin to form crusts in the hair. After 2 to 3 weeks, the necrotic skin becomes dry and parchment-like, and the hair and white skin slough leaving ulcerated areas that may develop secondary bacterial infections.”

MY COMMENTS: Fortunately we are not in the same situation as these poor animals. If our skin starts burning and becomes red, we can protect ourselves with clothes and go indoors. So, I have never heard of anyone suffering from some of these extreme symptoms.

Further on, the document mentions:

“…Removal of the suspected plants from the diet with subsequent recovery of the animal suggests a primary photosensitization.”

MY COMMENTS: Just as indicated in the article, when we stopped eating the Buckwheat Greens, all symptoms disappeared. This confirms that buckwheat was indeed the culprit.

Numerous other websites dedicated to veterinary health and medicine mention fagopyrism.

From The Identification Guide: Toxic Plants Compiled By Charlie Armour http://www.personalponies.org/DOCS/Poisonous Plants_12-09-00.doc

“Buckwheat is cultivated as a crop for fodder and for the production of buckwheat honey. Eating entire plants, dried or fresh, has caused sensitivity to light in horses with exposed light-colored skin. Exposure to the sun is necessary. This plant is considered to be a primary photosensitizer…”

Toxic chemicals: Fagopyrin, probably a derivative of naphthodianthrone, is closely related to hypericin, which is found in St. John's wort. The absorption spectra of these chemicals is in the range of 540-610 nm”

MY COMMENTS: The absorption spectra is a very important factor in fagopyrism since, to my knowledge, only these two plants – buckwheat and St. John's wort – have pigments that will react to this range. Since these wavelengths are not filtered by glass, the phototoxic reaction will occur even through a window. This helps confirm that the photosensitivity is absolutely linked to the ingestion of buckwheat.

From the North Dakota State University NDSU Extension Service
Alternative Feeds for Ruminants AS-1182 , September 1999
http://www.ext.nodak.edu/extpubs/ansci/livestoc/as1182-2.htm#BUCKWHEAT

“Buckwheat grain contains a compound called fagopyrin which can cause photosensitivity, eruptions on the skin, and itching behavior. Only white or lightcolored areas of the hide are affected. The animals apparently become photosensitive after consuming large amounts of buckwheat for an extended period of time. ”

MY COMMENTS: This is particularly interesting since it indicates that an accumulation of fagopyrin is required to produce symptoms. This corresponds to my own observation that it took us approximately one month of consuming Buckwheat Greens on a regular basis before clearly defined symptoms began to appear.

The website from the College of veterinary medicine – Colorado State University
http://www.vth.colostate.edu/poisonous_plants/report/report_detail_1.cfm?ID=318 adds a few points:

“Animals with white skin are most severely affected. Black skinned animals are not affected except for showing photophobia if the eyes are not pigmented. Initially the non pigmented skin becomes reddened, swollen and painful. Affected animals become very agitated when exposed to sunlight often trying to get under vehicles, buildings, trees to avoid the light.

Diagnosis: Photosensitization. Serum liver enzymes are usually normal, helping to differentiate primary photosensitization from secondary photosensitization resulting from severe liver failure.”

MY COMMENTS: All of the symptoms arising from the ingestion of Buckwheat Greens have other possible causes so it is essential to see your health care professional to make sure that there are no other underlying causes or conditions. The parameters of my liver functions were normal, confirming a primary photosensitization. This means that the photodynamic substance itself (fagopyrin) in the skin tissues was responsible for the reaction to sunlight.

From The School of Veterinary Medicine University of Wisconsin Madison
Food Animal Ophthalmology Dec. 4, 2002
http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/Data/CourseMaterial/Miller/foodanimaloptha.pdf
This article mentions:

“…some animals may develop blepharitis through direct solar irritation photosensitization following ingestion of photodynamic agents such as fagopyrin (buckwheat). Blepharitis is a condition that causes inflammation of the eyelids. Symptoms of blepharitis include a burning sensation, excessive tearing, itching, sensitivity to light (photophobia), red and swollen eyelids, redness of the eye, blurred vision, frothy tears and dry eye.”

MY COMMENTS: I believe that this is worth noting because our eyes felt extremely sensitive to sunlight, although we never developed any other symptoms of blepharitis.

From The Illini PorkNet
http://www.traill.uiuc.edu/porknet/paperDisplay.cfm?Type=paper&ContentID=84
Illini PorkNet The Online Resource for the Pork Industry
Buckwheat as a Feed Ingredient in Swine Diets Gilbert Hollis

The article states:

“When exposed to sunlight, pigs fed high levels of buckwheat develop peculiar eruptions and intense itching of the skin. This is caused by a photosensitizing agent in buckwheat known as fagopyrin. Only white or light-colored areas of the skin are affected, and they must be exposed to direct sunlight. If animals are kept indoors, they remain normal.”

MY COMMENTS: I find this text very significant because it implies that the fagopyrin develops its toxic attributes only if and when light skin is exposed to sunlight. Without light to trigger the reaction, the animals remain normal. This explains the fact that we felt normal except after exposing our skin to light.

The Canadian Government Biodiversity Information Facility website
http://www.cbif.gc.ca/pls/pp/ppack.info?p_psn=231&p_type=all&p_sci=sci&p_x=px
has the following notes on poisoning from Buckwheat:

Fagopyrum esculentum
General poisoning notes:

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum ) is cultivated in Canada as a crop for fodder and for the production of buckwheat honey. Ingesting entire plants, dried or fresh, has caused photosensitization in animals with exposed or light-colored skin including cattle, goats, sheep, swine, and turkeys. Exposure to the sun is necessary. This plant is considered to be a primary photosensitizer, although jaundice has occurred concurrently, which indicates secondary involvement of the liver (Cooper and Johnson 1984, Cheeke and Schull 1985). Photosensitization has not occurred in humans (Blumstein 1936).

Notes on Poisonous plant parts:

Little fagopyrin occurs in the seeds, but ingesting the entire plant, either green or dried, can cause serious photosensitization in livestock (Johnson 1989).

This Canadian Government website has numerous references and goes on to list all of the buckwheat poisoning occurrences in various animals.

MY COMMENTS: Note that the reference to humans is from 1936. Humans have been eating the innocuous seeds for a long time but only animals were eating the raw buckwheat plant in large quantities. However, with the expansion of the raw food movement and the use of Buckwheat Greens as a food source for people, some humans are now experiencing similar symptoms. The mention of a possible secondary involvement of the liver is worrisome but to my knowledge does not correlate with any human observation.

Even the FDA poisonous plants database showed thirty-two different references relating to buckwheat poisoning:

http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~djw/pltx.cgi?QUERY=buckwheat

There are many other papers and Internet resources that further explore the effect of fagopyrin. The information provided above represents a good summary of what’s available.

A natural food diet is certainly a good thing, and including a large portion of raw food also seems like a good idea. Most sprouts are harmless but powerful superfoods. Sunflower Greens, Broccoli sprouts, Radish Sprouts, Fenugreek Sprouts, etc. are all excellent products in reasonable quantities, but ingesting large quantities of these food products is rather still somewhat untested and should be done carefully.

I would like to make the disclaimer that I am not advising people to stop eating buckwheat. The Latin expression dosis sola facet venenum (the dose makes the poison) attributed to the ancient Romans could be applied here. A small quantity of Buckwheat Greens (or Buckwheat Lettuce as it is often called) in an individual diet could allow for healthy nutritional benefits without the negative effects of large amounts. Buckwheat does contain a large quantity of rutin, a member of a large group of phenolic secondary metabolites of plants that include more than 2,000 different known chemicals. Rutin is important because it strengthens capillaries and so helps people suffering from arteriosclerosis (the hardening of the arteries) or high blood pressure. Rutin is not found in beans or other grains such as rice, wheat, etc. but is contained in a fairly large quantity (4-6%) in buckwheat. Rutin belongs to a group of plant compounds called bioflavonoids that also include the important catechins of green tea and the polyphenols of red wine. Recent studies have shown that the bioflavonoids are powerful antioxidants which fight free radicals. Rutin is also found in the rind, pulp and skin of such fruits as lemons, grapefruits, oranges, lime, grapes, cherries, plums, peaches, apricots, apples, berries and vegetables such as green and yellow peppers, tomatoes, onions, Broccoli, parsley and especially asparagus. It is also said to be found in bee propolis, green tea and black tea. (source: http://www.acu-cell.com/bio.html )

I’ve eaten buckwheat most of my life without any sun sensitivity problems. I ate buckwheat in pancakes as a child, and later in the form of kasha and soba noodles. However, while several Health Centers are suggesting daily green drinks that include a lot of Buckwheat Greens for long periods of time, I believe this is risky. At the very least, people with fair skin should be informed about potential phototoxicity. Even people with darker skin should be very careful with the unpigmented flesh around their eyes. Animals consuming large quantities of buckwheat plant have developed blepharitis, a painful inflammation of the conjunctive tissues of the eye. It seems possible that blepharitis could occur in people.

Based on the information above, I believe all people should avoid the regular use of large quantities of Buckwheat Greens in their juices. It is relatively easy to find out if you are intoxicated with fagopyrin. N.T. Clare in Photodynamic action and its pathological effects states in 1956 that “no human cases have been reported, although it may easily be mistaken for sunburn. In this case fagopyrism may be distinguished by exposing the suspected skin to light filtered through plate glass which does not allow ultraviolet to pass through.” This is a simple procedure. If you are in doubt, expose a small part of usually unexposed skin to the sun through a window and use a timer. If you do not get a reaction within fifteen minutes, most likely, you are fine. A reaction would be a reddening or burning of the skin. If the reaction is very light you may barely notice it. If, a few hours later, the exposed skin is itching, abnormally sensitive to the cold or hot water or if you feel exaggerated pain when your skin is scratched or hit, you may have a problem with fagopyrism. If the symptoms disappear after removing buckwheat from your diet, this would confirm that it was causing the symptoms.

I believe that a lot of Buckwheat Greens eaters have these problems to some extent. A friend of mine recently told me that the sun had become much stronger and very unpleasant, probably because of the ozone layer. I think that the real cause of his discomfort is that he eats a lot of Buckwheat Greens. Another man says his hands have become very sensitive to the cold and he thinks he might have Raynaud’s disease. But he also eats a lot of Buckwheat Lettuce. Another friend works outside in a field. She recently started to eat a lot of Buckwheat Greens that she grows herself and began to complain about burning sensations on her hands and strange feelings on her face, as if she had no skin anymore. When she stopped eating Buckwheat Greens, everything returned to normal. As this information above circulates I believe that many people will identify buckwheat as a possible cause of their symptoms.

LAST COMMENTS: I am not on any sort of war path against living food promoters or groups or individuals practicing or promoting the use of sprouts and greens in the human diet. I still eat a lot of sprouted foods myself. I believe that the center I visited on the east coast does very good work overall. I’ve witnessed many people improve their health considerably during the time I spent there. I’ve also seen that the leaders manifest a high degree of flexibility and open mindedness about modifying their approach when presented with new information. I’d love to return there myself to enjoy their facilities again sometime.

WARNING: While I have been an enthusiastic natural food consumer and researcher for thirty-five years, I am NOT a medical professional nor a scientist. This article is based on my experience and research and represents my opinion only. Please DO NOT consider this document to be medical advice. I strongly urge you to consult your health care professional for any symptoms you may have. Be sure to get a blood test for your liver functions. If your liver function test results are normal then you probably suffer from primary phototoxicity, meaning that it is the photodynamic pigment itself in your skin that reacts to the sun and that you likely do not suffer from a functional disease. This is exceedingly good news since the solution is simple: just avoid the causative substance.

I have done this research in good faith to help myself and my friends with our problems and I believe these findings may be useful to others. This is why I am making this document available. I have nothing to gain from it personally. I am not associated or affiliated with any agency, school, company or organization that could benefit in any way from this information.

Gilles Arbour - Copyright June 2004
arbourg@videotron.ca

Dietary phytoestrogens.
Annu Rev Nutr 1997;17:353-81
Kurzer MS, Xu X.
Department of Food Science and Nutrition, University of Minnesota, St. Paul 55108, USA.

Broadly defined, phytoestrogens include isoflavones, coumestans, and lignans. A number of these compounds have been identified in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains commonly consumed by humans. Soy Beans, Clover and Alfalfa sprouts, and oilseeds (such as flaxseed) are the most significant dietary sources of isoflavones, coumestans, and lignans, respectively. Studies in humans, animals, and cell culture systems suggest that dietary phytoestrogens play an important role in prevention of menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, cancer, and heart disease. Proposed mechanisms include estrogenic and antiestrogenic effects, induction of cancer cell differentiation, inhibition of tyrosine kinase and DNA topoisomerase activities, suppression of angiogenesis, and antioxidant effects. Although there currently are no dietary recommendations for individual phytoestrogens, there may be great benefit in increased consumption of plant foods.

Health Benefits of Sprouts
Steve Meyerowitz

Sprouts have long been famous as "health food" but recent research shows that in addition to being a superb source of nutrients, they also have important curative ability. Sprouts like Alfalfa, radish, Broccoli, Clover and Soy Bean contain concentrated amounts of phytochemicals (plant compounds) that can protect us against disease.
Studies on canavanine, an amino acid analog in Alfalfa, has demonstrated benefit for pancreatic, colon and leukemia cancers. Plant estrogens are also abundant in sprouts. They increase bone formation and density and prevent bone breakdown or osteoporosis. They are also helpful in controlling hot flashes, menopause, PMS and fibrocystic breast tumors.
Alfalfa sprouts are one of our finest food sources of another compound, saponins. Saponins lower the bad cholesterol and fat but not the good HDL fats. Animal studies prove their benefit in arteriosclerosis is and cardiovascular disease. Saponins also stimulate the immune system by increasing the activity of natural killer cells such as T- lymphocytes and interferon. The saponin content of Alfalfa sprouts multiplies 450% over that of the unsprouted seed.
Sprouts also contain an abundance of highly active antioxidants that prevent DNA destruction and protect us from the ongoing effects of aging. It wouldn't be inconceivable to find a fountain of youth here, after all, sprouts represent the miracle of birth.

The Natural Abundance Of L-Canavanine, An Active Anticancer Agent, in Alfalfa, Medicago Sativa
(L.)Pharmaceutical Biology
2000, Vol.38, No.1, pp. 001-006
Gerald A. Rosenthal and Palesa Nkomo
University of Kentucky, Laboratory of Biochemical Ecology, Lexington, USA
L-Canavanine, a potentially toxic antimetabolite of L-arginine that is stored by many leguminous plants, has demonstrative antineoplastic activity against a number of animal-bearing carcinomas and cancer cell lines. This investigation evaluated the natural abundance of this anti-cancer compound in commercially available sprouts, and in ten varieties of the seed of Alfalfa, Medicago Sativa (L.). Canavanine abundance in commercially grown sprouts varied according to the source; the young plant stored appreciable canavanine that ranged from 1.3 to 2.4% of the dry matter. Alfalfa seeds were also rich in this nonprotein amino acid as the canavanine content varied from 1.4 to 1.8% of the dry matter. On average, the tested seeds contained 1.54 ± 0.03% canavanine. Alfalfa seed canavanine content was comparable to the levels found in the seeds of representative members of the genus Canavalia, which are amongst the more abundance sources of this antimetaboli te.

Antioxidants in vegan diet and rheumatic disorders
Hanninen, Kaartinen K, Rauma AL, Nenonen M, Torronen R, Hakkinen AS, Adlercreutz H, Laakso J.
Toxicology 2000 Nov 30;155(1-3):45-53
Department of Physiology, University of Kuopio, Finland.

Plants are rich natural sources of antioxidants in addition to other nutrients. Interventions and cross sectional studies on subjects consuming uncooked vegan diet called living food (LF) have been carried out. We have clarified the efficacy of LF in rheumatoid diseases as an example of a health problem where inflammation is one of the main concerns. LF is an uncooked vegan diet and consists of berries, fruits, vegetables and roots, nuts, germinated seeds and sprouts, i.e. rich sources of carotenoids, vitamins C and E. The subjects eating LF showed highly increased levels of beta and alfa carotenes, lycopen and lutein in their sera. Also the increases of vitamin C and vitamin E (adjusted to cholesterol) were statistically significant. As the berry intake was 3-fold compared to controls the intake of polyphenolic compounds like quercetin, myricetin and kaempherol was much higher than in the omnivorous controls. The LF diet is rich in fibre, substrate of lignan production, and the urinary excretion of polyphenols like enterodiol and enterolactone as well as secoisolaricirecinol were much increased in subjects eating LF. The shift of fibromyalgic subjects to LF resulted in a decrease of their joint stiffness and pain as well as an improvement of their self-experienced health. The rheumatoid arthritis patients eating the LF diet also reported similar positive responses and the objective measures supported this finding. The improvement of rheumatoid arthritis was significantly correlated with the day-to-day fluctuation of subjective symptoms. In conclusion the rheumatoid patients subjectively benefited from the vegan diet rich in antioxidants, lactobacilli and fibre, and this was also seen in objective measures.

Mystery Solved: How Bleach Kills Germs
Thu Nov 13, 2:46 pm ET
Reuters – Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology Associate Professor Ursula Jakob (L) and Jeannette Winter, …
CHICAGO (Reuters) – Bleach has been killing germs for more than 200 years but U.S. scientists have just figured out how the cleaner does its dirty work.
It seems that hypochlorous acid, the active ingredient in bleach, attacks proteins in bacteria, causing them to clump up much like an egg that has been boiled, a team at the University of Michigan reported in the journal Cell on Thursday.
The discovery, which may better explain how humans fight off infections, came quite by accident.
"As so often happens in science, we did not set out to address this question," Ursula Jakob, who led the team, said in a statement.
The researchers had been studying a bacterial protein called heat shock protein 33, which is a kind of molecular chaperon that becomes active when cells are in distress, for example from the high temperature of a fever.
In this case, the source of the distress was hypochlorous acid or hypochlorite.
Jakob's team figured out that bleach and high temperatures have very similar effects on proteins.
When they exposed the bacteria to bleach, the heat shock protein became active in an attempt to protect other proteins in the bacteria from losing their chemical structure, forming clumps that would eventually die off.
"Many of the proteins that hypochlorite attacks are essential for bacterial growth, so inactivating those proteins likely kills the bacteria," Marianne Ilbert, a postdoctoral fellow in Jakob's lab, said in a statement.
The researchers said the human immune system produces hypochlorous acid in response to infection but the substance does not kill only the bacterial invaders. It kills human cells too, which may explain how tissue is destroyed in chronic inflammation.
"Hypochlorous acid is an important part of host defense," Jakob said. "It's not just something we use on our countertops."
(Editing by Maggie Fox and John O'Callaghan)

Simplified Method for Canavanine in Seeds and Sprouts
Rajkowski, Kathleen T., Eastern Reginoal Research Center, 600 East Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038
Approved Date: 2002-11-04
Interpretive Summary:
Sprout growers are looking for alternative disinfectants to reduce the bacterial pathogens on seeds. Canavanine is a natural inhibitor of cell growth and is excreted by germinating Alfalfa seeds. The published method to identify the canavanine in Alfalfa seeds uses environmentally unfriendly chemicals and is time consuming. A simple, quick identification method was developed which uses micro silica plates and an alcohol-water solvent system. This method was used to determine that the amount of canavanine in both the irradiated and non-irradiated Alfalfa seeds was the same. This method was also used to determine the amount of canavanine in the sprout water during growth. Others can use this simple method to determine the effective amount to be used to reduce bacterial pathogen on seeds used for sprouting.

Choline: Food for Thought
The Role of Choline in Our Bodies and Brains

By Laura Dolson, About.com
Choline - the word may be vaguely familiar, but you probably don't know much about this nutrient, which shows signs of being quite important to our early development, and all through our lives in our brains, livers, and perhaps much more.
What Is Choline?
Choline is a chemical similar to the B-vitamins, and is often lumped in with them, although it is not (yet) an "official" B-vitamin. Although its entire mechanism of action, particularly how it interacts with other nutrients, is not completely understood, it seems to often work in concert with folate and an amino acid called methionine. Although the human body can make some choline it is generally recognized that it is important to get dietary choline as well.
What are the Benefits of Choline?
Choline serves various functions in our bodies – in the structure of cell membranes, protecting our livers from accumulating fat, as the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, and more. Because of rapid development in fetuses and infants, we have a great need for choline in our early lives. Human milk has high levels of choline.

Choline started to get the interest of nutrition researchers when it was found that fetal rats whose mothers didn't get enough choline in their diets had less brain development and poorer memories after birth than those whose mothers ate adequate amounts of the nutrient. Over the past few years, there has been a rush of research, and there are now hints that choline may be essential not only for the brain development of fetuses and infants, but may help prevent memory loss associated with aging (although attempts to reverse cognitive decline have been disappointing). Choline has been shown to protect the liver from certain types of damage, and can help reverse damage that has already occurred. Additionally, it may help lower cholesterol and homocysteine levels associated with cardiovascular disease, and may also help protect against some types of cancers. This is an area where more research is needed, but there are some positive first signs.
What are Good Sources of Choline?
Until 2004, when the USDA published a database of choline in foods, we only had scattered studies to go on. This more systematic study has revealed some surprises, notably that there is less choline in many foods than previously thought. Although most foods have at least a little choline, some people may have to pay more close attention to get enough in their diets, particularly if they do not eat many whole eggs. Here are some examples of foods that are particularly high in choline, taken from the USDA’s Database for Choline in Foods.
Beef liver - pan-fried - 100 grams (about 3.5 oz) - 418 mg
Whole large egg - 112 mg choline
Beef (ground) 80% lean/20% fat - 3.5 oz patty - 81 mg
Cauliflower - 3/4 C cooked (1" pieces) - 62 mg
Navy beans - 1/2 C cooked - 48 mg
Tofu - 100 grams (about 3.5 oz) - 28 mg
Almonds - sliced - 1/2 cup - 26 mg
Peanut butter - 2 T - 20 mg

Enzyme Nutrtion
Dr. Edward Howell
1985
Avery Pub.

The function of Enzymes in the Body

What is an enzyme? What is it made of? Enzymes represent the life element. A cooked Lentil, enzymes killed, cannot sprout. They carry proteins, and some carry vitamins, but they are a life force which has never been synthesized. There are three classes of enzymes: metabolic, which run our bodies, digestive enzymes, which digest our food, and food enzymes, from raw foods, which start food digestion. All of our tissues and organs are run by metabolic enzymes. These workers take proteins, fats, carbohydrates (sugars and starches) and structure them into healthy bodies, keeping everything running right. Every organ and tissue has its very own metabolic enzymes to do the specialized work, There are for example, 98 distinct enzymes working in the arteries, each with a particular job to do.

Dr. Howell, as well as many metabolic researchers believe that the body has an enzyme potential, no more, no less and when that potential is used up, you die. “The more lavishly a young body gives up its enzymes, the sooner the state of enzyme poverty, or old age, is reached.” Enzyme Nutrition, page 113. It is sort of like a debit account that you never put any money into. You are born with a beginning balance. You withdraw and withdraw, and when you withdraw your last dollar (enzyme), you are dead. He intends to convince us to make the withdrawals related to digestion smaller, or non-existent. That way, our normal metabolic functions, wholly dependent on our enzyme debit account, can last longer and can get us through bouts of disease and illness. I’m not sure he has made a convincing case to me—I do believe however, that our organs and systems making the hundreds of types of enzymes the body uses do have a shelf life, and if we wear out our organs with bad food and bad habits, they will wear out, thus producing no more enzymes. I guess the questions surround the word “wear out’ and what that means. To Dr, Howell “wearing out” meant you had used up your enzymes. There were tests done with flies that showed that the faster the flies used us their metabolic enzymes (by being subjected to hot weather) the faster they died. To him that means there is a limited supply of enzymes. But he has shown throughout his book that there are different enzymes made for different systems. He has not shown, except in the case of digestive enzymes which are made in the mouth, pancreas, and stomach, what systems make all the metabolic enzymes, such as the artery enzymes mentioned. Wouldn’t it be possible to use up your artery enzymes or your bone enzymes, for example, and still have plenty of digestive enzymes? He himself likens our system to one central bank account that becomes “withdrawn”, but with hundreds of enzymes and dozens of systems making the enzymes, who or what is keeping tally of all the various enzymes our body is producing to subtract them from the ledger?

Since good health depends on all these metabolic enzymes doing an excellent job, we must be sure that nothing interferes with the body making enough of them. Hundreds of metalbolic enzymes are employed throughout the body not only to keep systems running smoothly but to repair damage and decay and heal diseases.

Digestive enzymes have only three main jobs: digesting protein, carbohydrate, and fat. Proteases digests protein, amylases digests carbohydrates, and lipases digest fat. Nature’s plan calle for food enzymes found in raw foods to help with digestion instead of forcing the body’s digestive enzymes to carry the whole load. If food enzymes do some of the work, your body won’t be overtaxed to produce all the enzymes itself. It will allow the body to expend its sum total Enzyme Potential in better ways.

In 1966 the editor of Scottish Medical Journal editorialized: “Probably nearly half of our daily production of protein in the body consists of enzymes. Indeed each of us, as with all living organisms, could be regarded as an orderly integrated succession of enzyme reactions”. What this means is that our every living minute, our breathing, sleeping, eating, working, playing, even thinking is enzyme-dependent. The living body is under a great daily burden to produce the volume of enzymes needed to run efficiently. Enzymes are the stuff of life. They are continually being eliminated in the urine, feces, and sweat. They are needed in digesting food, running the heart, kidneys, liver, lungs and brain. Life could not exists without enzymes. Enzymes convert the food we eat into chemical structures that can pass through the cell membranes of those lining the digestive tract and into the bloodstream. Food must be digested so it can pass through to the blood. Enzymes also aid in converting prepared food into new muscle, flesh, bone, nerves and glands. Working with the liver they help store excess food for future energy and building needs. They also assist the kidneys, lungs, liver, skin and colon in their important eliminative tasks. It would be easier to write about what enzymes don’t do, since they are involved with almost every aspect of life.

One enzyme helps to build phosphorus into bone. Another causes blood to coagulate. Iron is bound in the blood by another enzyme. The alchemists of the body, enzymes can convert protein, sugar or carbohydrate into fat. Conversely, enzymes convert fat into carbohydrates during weight loss. Enzymes perform thousands of metabolic tasks (tasks that keep the body running) each day.

The Enzyme Bank Account

According to Rubner’s Laaw, all organisms have a certain amount of energy to expend and then they die. If an organism expends it energy quickly, it dies young. If it conserves it’s energy, it dies old. Prof. Pearl of Johns Hopkins summarized his work on duration of life in the same way: “ In general, duration of life varies inversely with the rate of energy expenditure during its continuance. In short, the length of life dpends inversely on the rate of living.”

The scientific team MacArthur and Baille at University of Toronto stated:
The organism appears to receive a specific sum total of “vitatlity” rather than
a definite allotment of days. Life runs out its course to its natural term with a
velocity directly proportional to the catabolic rate, or, as commonly expressed,
according to the rapidity of “wear and tear”.
Catabolic rate translates into enzyme activity, and wear and tear into enzyme loss. Each child is born with a definite amount of enzyme potential. It can be saved or wasted, used up rapidly by living at a fast pace or used sparingly at a slow pace. The enzyme potential can be made to last longer when outside enzyme reinforcements (raw diet or enzyme supplements) are taken in. There is a mistaken notion in some quarters that reinforcements of food enzymes are not needed because the body can make its own enzymes. It can and does, but we over-obligate our bodies to make excessive amounts of digestive enzymes and thus this places a drain our systems.

The last several generations have seen a dramatic change in our food supply in America. Little attention has been paid (until now) to how the lack of enzymes in our over-cooked, processed foods relates to imbalances in our organs, and the resulting diseases.

Enzymes are components of living matter. All living organisms need to take in enzymes as part of their food. No living organism can exist without hundreds of different enzymes in its makeup. Modern diet removes hundreds of those enzymes from our foods. Enzymes are very fragile things. They suffer from excessive light and pressure, but mainly from heat. Food enzymes have always existed in all food and for that reason are believed by many to fulfill a need in nutrition.

The tissues and organs produce less enzymes as they age. And if you use your organs too hard all your life to produce enzymes for you, then you will wear out faster, too.

Measuring Effects of Music, Noise, and Healing Energy Using a Seed Germination Bioassay
J Altern Complement Med. 2004 Feb;10(1):113-22.
Creath K, Schwartz GE.
Center for Frontier Medicine in Biofield Science and Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721-0094, USA. kcreath@u.arizona.edu

OBJECTIVE: To measure biologic effects of music, noise, and healing energy without human preferences or placebo effects using seed germination as an objective biomarker. METHODS: A series of five experiments were performed utilizing okra and zucchini seeds germinated in acoustically shielded, thermally insulated, dark, humid growth chambers. Conditions compared were an untreated control, musical sound, pink noise, and healing energy. Healing energy was administered for 15-20 minutes every 12 hours with the intention that the treated seeds would germinate faster than the untreated seeds. The objective marker was the number of seeds sprouted out of groups of 25 seeds counted at 12-hour intervals over a 72-hour growing period. Temperature and relative humidity were monitored every 15 minutes inside the seed germination containers. A total of 14 trials were run testing a total of 4600 seeds. RESULTS: Musical sound had a highly statistically significant effect on the number of seeds sprouted compared to the untreated control over all five experiments for the main condition (p < 0.002) and over time (p < 0.000002). This effect was independent of temperature, seed type, position in room, specific petri dish, and person doing the scoring. Musical sound had a significant effect compared to noise and an untreated control as a function of time (p < 0.03) while there was no significant difference between seeds exposed to noise and an untreated control. Healing energy also had a significant effect compared to an untreated control (main condition, p < 0.0006) and over time (p < 0.0001) with a magnitude of effect comparable to that of musical sound. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that sound vibrations (music and noise) as well as biofields (bioelectromagnetic and healing intention) both directly affect living biologic systems, and that a seed germination bioassay has the sensitivity to enable detection of effects caused by various applied energetic conditions.

Stomach of Humans
From Enzyme Nutrition
Dr. Edward Howell
1985
Avery Pub.

Our stomach is divided into an upper and lower section. The upper has to peristalsis (churning), no acid and no pepsin (stomach enzymes). The upper part is where the enzymes in food participate in digestion. Except in the cases of raw fermented or germinated foods, this is where initial predigestion occurs—the first step in the digestion of protein, fat and starch by endogenous (those made by the body) enzymes. At the tail end of the upper section some pepsin appears but it can do nothing until it mixes with the acid in the lower section.

In the lower section the food is not actually churned but squeezed and pushed along. This allows amylase, food enzymes and any enzyme supplements ample time to predigest starches, proteins, and fats in the upper section, before they move into the lower section where food is acted upon by pepsin and acids.

When empty the lower section is flat and the upper section is open and has few if any, glands to produce enzymes and acids. After enough food has entered the open upper area, it sits in the upper stomach for awile, (1 hours) as the stomach enzymes go to work on it. During that hour, the lower stomach is making pepsin, so that the ph of the food will be sufficiently lowered to digest it. Then the food drops into the lower stomach and the pepsin mixes with the protein portion of it.

The lower stomach performs the second step of predigestion, but of protein only.

In the upper part of the small intestine the digestive juice of the pancreas continues the digestion of all the nutrients… Final digestion of food is accomplished by the cells lining the small intestine.

A Healthy Perspective of Sprouts
by Gabriel Cousens, MD

Today, with so many bits and pieces of information relating to health are coming to our attention it’s difficult to be clear about what is healthy and what is not. Perspective is essential. Here’s an example. Andrew Weil, MD wrote an article

which appeared in Natural Health Journal, in which he warned against eating legume sprouts, including Alfalfa sprouts.

I have significant respect and appreciation for Dr. Weil. He is one of a minority of physicians and authors involved for many years in the area of natural healing. In this instance, the perspective of Dr. Weil's position reflects a mechanistic and drug oriented (even if they are natural) AMA type of thinking that lacks a fuller viewpoint of what healthy eating and living is about.
Although his point is worth considering, because he’s saying that people need to be aware of all considerations when they select a diet, his conclusions miss the forest for the trees. His opinion is made further inaccurate by his ignorance of the evidence for the importance of enzymes in live food. Dr. Weil's comment that, "there is no reason to think that any of them [live enzymes] survive digestion to affect other systems of our bodies," is simply inaccurate. He attempts to say that the value of live enzymes in Alfalfa sprouts and other live foods is mythological.
The only mythology that exists is the old AMA medical reasoning that live food enzymes are not absorbed into our system from the gastrointestinal tract as whole, active proteins because they are theoretically broken down by the digestive process. This medical myth has been proven to be scientifically inaccurate from a variety of approaches.
For example, people have been successfully ingesting pineapple enzyme, bromelain, for years, as a treatment for muscle and joint inflammation. Research with radio- active tracers shows that at least 40% of the pineapple enzyme is absorbed into our system in an intact form. This is simple, but straight forward evidence. Live cell analysis experimentation has shown that within ten minutes after ingesting enzymes to break up red blood cell clumping, they are able to see the red blood cells become unclumped. Something is happening in the blood after the enzymes are ingested that suggests the enzymes are effective in the blood.
The most important scientific evidence and argument disproving Dr. Weil's AMA medical logic about enzymes, comes from a research paper by Dr. Michael Gardner at the School of Biomedical Sciences in England, titled "Gastrointestinal Absorption of Intact Proteins" published in the Annual Review of Nutrition in 1988.
After his extensive review of the literature, Dr. Gardner concludes: "the concordance between results obtained by independent workers using different experimental approaches is now so strong that we cannot fail to accept that intact proteins and high-molecular-fragments thereof do cross the gastrointestinal tract in humans and animals (both neonates and adults)." In other words, the live enzymes in Alfalfa sprouts are able to cross the gastrointestinal tract in their intact form and therefore can have the healing affect on the body claimed by live food advocates.
One of the most important aspects of live foods, ignored by Dr. Weil, is that food enzymes pre-digest the food in the food-enzyme part of the stomach, and therefore have a beneficial affect to our health without even having to pass through the gastrointestinal wall. Research by Dr. Beazell, a noted researcher in the field, published in the American Journal of Physiology, shows that 60% of the complex carbohydrates, 30% of the protein, and 10% of the fats are digested in the food-enzyme stomach by the enzymes contained in raw food. By eating food which is not cooked, we preserve our own digestive enzyme energy. This enzyme energy, according to the Law of Enzyme Adaptation formulated by Dr. Howell, considered the father of food enzyme research, can then be transferred to other needy places in the body to bring good health.
Although I do not agree with Dr. Weil's perspective, I validate that there are small amounts of a variety of naturally occurring toxins that may be found in the vegetable and fruit world. In my book, Conscious Eating, I have a whole section on the natural occurring toxins in food. After listing them in detail and discussing clinical and laboratory research on them, I came to the same conclusion as the National Academy of Science Natural Research Council. It is that these factors (natural occurring plant toxins) are not significant if ingested in moderate amounts, particularly if one is in good health. While it is good for people to be aware of the micro amounts of naturally occurring toxins, it is important to understand that the body has a sufficient defense system and the live foods we ingest have sufficient anti-oxidants to metabolically detoxify these toxins if we are eating them in moderate amounts. It is also important to understand that the word toxin does not mean carcinogen, as is subtly implied by Dr. Weil.
The major toxins in legumes are hemagluttins which line the intestine and block protein and fat absorption and anti-trypsin factors which disrupt protein digestion, causing putrefaction and gas. Neither of these toxins are cancer producing. It is misleading and alarmist thinking to imply that all toxins are cancer producing. However, because the hemagluttins and anti-trypsin factors commonly found in legumes do disrupt the digestive process, I do not recommend eating raw legumes and immature sprouted legumes. Sprouting and rinsing some of the legumes seems to greatly reduce these digestive inhibitors so that some of them can be eaten in modest amounts, especially sprouted Garbanzo Beans (chick peas) and Chinese (Mung) bean sprouts, as well as Alfalfa and Clover sprouts. I have observed the digestibility of garbanzo and Mung bean spouts, if eaten in small amounts, in hundreds of people.
My clinical experience with Alfalfa sprouts in thousands of people, that of the Hippocrates Health Institute for 25 years with thousands of people, and that of Dr. Szekely, healer and noted researcher from the 1930s [who ran a live food clinic serving Alfalfa sprouts to over 123, 000 people over 30 years], is that Alfalfa sprouts and Clover sprouts have never been noted to cause any pattern of symptoms in a general population, and certainly not cancer.
In the report of Dr. Ames, which Dr. Weil quotes as the basis of his article in Natural Health, there is no mention or implication that Alfalfa sprouts are associated in any way with cancer as Dr. Weil implies. Instead, Alfalfa sprouts have been successfully used as part of healing therapeutic programs in live food healing centers for years. There are millions of pounds of Alfalfa sprouts eaten safely throughout this country daily with no obvious problems.
Alfalfa sprouts are a wonderful, healthy, biogenic food, yet Alfalfa sprouts, eaten in excess and harvested before they are mature do contain a small percentage of an amino acid analog called canavanine. Canavanine has been reported to cause a worsening of symptoms in several cases of people who suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (S.L.E.). The people in these anecdotal cases seemed to have increased their intake of Alfalfa sprouts, either because they were the only fresh vegetables available in winter, or because they began eating them in massive amounts. The canavanine concentration is highest in the Alfalfa seeds and decreases in concentration after the third day of sprouting. Because canavanine is water soluble, rinsing the sprouts each day decreases the concentration.
Alfalfa sprouts are best eaten when they are fully mature. At this time they are at their nutritional peak, have become rich in color and have their first leaf division. This is usually around day seven. For several years, I have advised my S.L.E. patients, and other with rheumatoid-like diseases, about the possible dangers in eating immature sprouts. Following this advise of selecting mature Alfalfa greens and not eating them to excess, as of yet, no one with these diseases has suffered an exacerbation of symptoms after eating Alfalfa sprouts. It is important to emphasize that there is no human clinical evidence that healthy people without S.L.E. have anything to be concerned about if they eat mature Alfalfa sprouts in moderation.
There appears to be a subtle, and almost joyful meta-communication in Dr. Weil's statement, that Alfalfa sprouts, and live foods by implication, are something to fear. Many people on a live food diet tuned into this subtle communication, and called me with concern after Dr. Weil's article appeared.
It is important to maintain the larger health perspective that sprouts and other live foods are incredible life-giving and healing foods. Raw legumes are an exception to this, except for mature Alfalfa and Clover sprouts, and small amounts of garbanzo and Mung sprouts. They contain a rainforest of undiscovered and known good health characteristics such as" anti-oxidents, anti-carcinogens, live enzymes, electromagnetic energies, a high zeta potential, high levels of vitamins, nucleic acids, paciferans (plant "antibiotics"), auxones (beneficial plant hormones), and other factors whose health benefits far outweigh and neutralize the potential dangers of minute amounts of naturally occurring toxins.
In America, where 60% of the population does not eat fresh vegetables and fruits on a daily basis, it is important to be aware of the resistance to a health lifestyle and diet, rather than create exaggerated fears about them. Part of being a conscious eater is to know about these issues, and eat in a moderate way using a variety of sprouts and other live foods in the diet. With this holistic perspective, Mother Nature's gifts of live and natural food can be eaten with love and not fear.

Author’s Profile: Gabriel Cousens, MD is a board certified practicing medical doctor. He is the Director of the Life Rejuvenation Center, Patagonia, AZ and the author of several books on nutrition and good health. Dr. Cousens uses diet as a major healthcare method, and was New Frontier Magazine's Health Editor for over a decade.

Nutrients in seeds and sprouts of Alfalfa, Lentils, Mung beans, and Soy Beans
Kylen, Anne M.; McCready, Rolland M.
Journal of Food Science (1975), 40(5), 1008-9 CODEN: JFDSAZ; ISSN: 0022-1147. English.
Dry seeds and sprouts of Alfalfa, Lentils, Mung and Soy Beans were analyzed for selected nutrients. Sprouts compared on a solids basis contained Ca [7440-70-2], Fe [7439-89-6], and Zn [7440-66-6] at levels about the same as the seeds while protein was higher and fat content lower in sprouts. Total vitamin C [50-81-7], thiamine [59-43-8], niacin [59-67-6] and riboflavin [83-88-5] content was higher in sprouts than seeds, vitamin C showing the greatest increase. Cooking slightly lowered heat-labile nutrients in sprouts. Galactose-containing sugars of Mung beans disappeared upon sprouting. Based upon chem. analyses, nutrient levels of sprouts compare favorably with other fresh vegetables.

Food sources of phyto-oestrogens and their precursors in Europe
Br J Nutr. 2003 Jun;89 Suppl 1:S39-43.
Fletcher RJ.
Kellogg Company, Manchester, UK.

Phyto-oestrogens are dietary components found in some plants, which act in vivo like weak oestrogens. They may reduce the risk of some degenerative diseases moderated by oestrogen, including breast cancer and osteoporosis. The most widely studied are the isoflavones genistein and daidzein from Soyabeans, but lignans may be more prevalent in the European diet. Soya foods have traditionally been consumed in the Orient for millennia, and are now widely available to European consumers. Levels of isoflavone in Soyabeans from published literature vary between 560 and 3810 mg/kg, depending on variety and growing conditions. Soya protein concentrates and isolates derived from Soyabeans contain 466-615 mg isoflavones/kg. Traditional Soya milk, bean curds, bean sprouts, etc. contain 13 to 2030 mg isoflavone/kg, depending on the starting raw material and final water content. Fermented foods have a different isoflavone conjugate profile, which may be important in absorption and metabolism. Soya analogues of European foods include dairy and meat products, which contain 38 to 3000 mg total isoflavones/kg, depending the source of Soya and dilution with other ingredients. A wide range of foods contain low levels of Soya-derived isoflavones, but such foods do not make a significant contribution to mean intakes in Europe. Flaxseed is by far the richest source of lignan precursors. However, foods such as cereal brans, legumes and some vegetables are a more important source in the diets of Europeans because they are more widely consumed. For similar reasons, compared with Soya isoflavones, lignans may be a more important source of phyto-oestrogens in the diets of Europeans.

Sprouts for Optimum Nutrition
healthlibrary.com
Sprouts are considered as wonder foods. They rank as the freshest and most nutritious of all vegetables available to the human diet. By a process of natural transmutation, sprouted food acquires vastly improved digestibility and nutritional qualities when compared to non-sprouted embryo from which it derives.
Sprouted foods have been part of the diet of many ancient races for thousands of years. Even to this day, the Chinese retain their fame for delicious Mung bean sprouts. Sprouts provide all the essential vitamins and minerals. They should form a vital component of our diet. Sprouting requires no constant care but only an occasional sprinkling of water.
All edible grains, seeds and legumes can be sprouted. Generally the following are used for sprouting :
Grains : Wheat, maize, ragi, bajra and barley.
Seeds : Alfalfa seeds, radish seeds, fenugreek seeds, carrot seeds, coriander seeds, pumpkin seeds and muskmelon seeds.
Legumes : Mung, Bengal gram, groundnut and Peas.
Alfalfa, as the name in Arabic signifies, is the king of all sprouts. Grown as a plant, its roots are known to burrow as much as 12 meters into the subsoil to bring up valuable trace minerals of which manganese is especially important to health and digestion ; it is a vital component of human insulin. Apart from minerals, Alfalfa is also a rich source of vitamins A,B,C,E and K and amino acids. Sesame seeds are another good source of nourishment. They contain all the essential amino acids in their 20 per cent protein content and higher concentration of calcium than does milk. They are high in letichin, unsaturated fats, vitamin E and vitamin B complex, besides other live nutrients.
How to Sprout
As a first step, a good variety of seeds should be used for sprouting. It should be ensured that the seeds, legumes or grains are of the sproutable type. Soyabeans do not sprout well as they often become sour. Wheat has to be grown in soil. It is advisable to use seeds which are not chemically treated as this slows down the germination rate. The seeds should be washed thoroughly and then soaked overnight in a jar of pure water. The jar should be covered with cheesecloth or wire screening. The duration of soaking will depend upon the size of the seed. Small seeds are soaked for five hours, medium size for eight hours and beans and grains for 10 to 12 hours.
On the following morning, the seeds should be rinsed and the water drained off. Not more than one-fourth of the jar should be filled with the seeds for sprouting. Soaking makes the seeds, grains or legumes fatty, pulpy and full of water. It should, therefore, be ensured that the jar has enough room for the seeds to expand during sprouting. They will expand about eight times their original size. The jar should be kept at a place which is exposed neither to chill nor hot winds. It should also be ensured that the mouth of the jar is not completely covered so as to allow air in. The seeds should be rinsed and water drained off three times every day till they are ready to eat.
The seeds will germinate and become sprouts in two or three days from commencement of soaking, depending on temperature and humidity. Care should always be taken to ensure that sprouts do not lie in water. They should be kept well drained to prevent souring. Sprouts are at their optimum level of flavour and tenderness when tiny green leaves appear at the tips. Their nutritional value is also optimum. To retain their freshness and nutritional value, they should be placed in a refrigerator, if they cannot be consumed immediately after reaching suitable maturity. Sprouts can be kept for several days in this way.
Some caution is necessary in sprouting. Soaking for a longer period than required makes the seeds rot or ferment. The main factors for germination are water, air, heat and darkness. There may be poor germination or no germination at all if any of these factors are not present such as insufficient water, or too much water, lack of sufficient heat, lack of fresh air, either too cold or too hot surroundings and too much light.
Benefits
There is an amazing increase in nutrients in sprouted foods when compared to their dried embryo. In the process of sprouting, the vitamins, minerals and protein increase substantially with corresponding decrease in calories and carbohydrate content. These comparisons are based on an equivalent water content in the foods measured. Analysis of dried seeds, grains and legumes shows a very low water content. But this increases upto tenfold when the same food is converted into sprouts. For accurate comparison each must be brought to a common denomination of equal water content to assess the exact change brought in nutritional value.
Sprouted Mung beans, for instance, have a 8.3 increase of water content over dried beans. Hence the nutritional value of sprouted and dried Mung beans can be compared by multiplying the analysed nutrients of sprouted Mung beans by the factor of 8.3. Based on this criterion, the changes found in sprouted Mung beans when compared with the figures for the beans in the dried state are as follows :
Energy content - calories
Decrease 15 per cent.
Total carbohydrate content
Decrease 15 per cent
Protein availability
Increase 30 per cent
Calcium content
Increase 34 per cent
Potassium content
Increase 80 per cent
Sodium content
Increase 690 per cent
Iron content
Increase 40 per cent
Phosphorous content
Increase 56 per cent
Vitamin A content
Increase 285 per cent
Thiamine or Vitamin B1 content
Increase 208 per cent
Riboflavin or Vitamin B2 content
Increase 515 per cent
Niacin or Vitamin B3 content
Increase 256 per cent
Ascorbic acid or Vitamin C content
An infinite increase
The increase in protein availability is of great significance. It is a valuable indicator of the enhanced nutritional value of a food when sprouted. The simultaneous reduction in carbohydrate content indicates that many carbohydrate molecules are broken down during sprouting to allow an absorption of atmospheric nitrogen and reforming into amino-acids. The resultant protein is the most easily digestible of all proteins available in foods.
The remarkable increase in sodium content supports the view that sprouted foods offer nutritional qualities. Sodium is essential to the digestive process within the gastro-intestinal tract and also to the elimination of carbon dioxide. Together with the remarkable increase in vitamins, sodium materially contributes to the easy digestibility of sprouts.
Dried seeds, grains and legumes do not contain discernible traces of ascorbic acid, yet when sprouted, they reveal quite significant quantities which are important in the body’s ability to metabolise proteins. The infinite increase in ascorbic acid derives from their absorption of atmospheric elements during growth.
Sprouts have several other benefits. They supply food in predigested form, that is, the food which has already been acted upon by the enzymes and made to digest easily. During sprouting, much of the starch is broken down into simple sugars such as glucose and sucrose by the action of the enzyme ‘amylase’. Proteins are converted into amino acids and amides. Fats and oils are converted into more simple fatty acids by the action of the enzyme lipase.
During sprouting, the beans lose their objectionable gas producing quality. Research has shown that oligosaccharides are responsible for gas formation. For maintenance of health, some amount of gas production is necessary but it should be within safe limits. As the process of germination ends and sprouting begins, the percentage of oligosaccharides is reduced by 90. Sprouts contain a lot of fibre and water and, therefore, are helpful in overcoming constipation.
Sprouts are an extremely inexpensive method of obtaining a concentration of vitamins, minerals and enzymes. They have in them all the constituent nutrients of fruits and vegetables and are ‘live’ foods. Eating sprouts is the safest and best way of getting the advantage of both fruits and vegetables without contamination and harmful insecticides.
It should, however, be ensured that seeds and dried beans are purchased from a store where they are fresh, unsprayed and packaged as food. Seeds that are packaged for planting purposes may contain mercury compounds or other toxic chemicals.

Kirlian - Aura Photography
The following Kirlian Shots are of Organically Grown Living LENTIL SPROUTS.
Shown left, living organically grown Lentil sprout, right out of the health-food-store package.
Shown right, living organically grown Lentil sprout, blanched at 140(F) for only 2-3 minutes!
Which food has more energy? Which food has more living nutritional benefits?
lentil sprout aura
Which "Food" Do You Eat?
Living
lentil cooked
- or Dead?

The influence of germination on the nutritional value of wheat, Mung beans and chickpeas
Z Lebensm Unters Forsch. 1987 Nov;185(5):386-93.
[Article in German]
Harmuth-Hoene AE, Bognar AE, Kornemann U, Diehl JF.
Bundesforschungsanstalt fur Ernahrung, Karlsruhe, Bundesrepublik Deutschland.

The changes in nutrients during the germination of wheat, Mung beans and chickpeas were investigated. Germination was performed under conditions commonly used in the household. The amount of water taken up during 4 days of germination varied from 159 g/100 g (chickpeas) to 450 g/100 g (Mung beans). For all three seeds losses of dry matter and carbohydrates were observed. In wheat and Mung beans, phytic acid was partially hydrolyzed. In Mung beans, the total fat content decreased. Increases in the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in wheat and of dietary fibre in wheat and Mung beans were noted. At a constant level of crude protein, a measurable rise in limiting amino acids was observed in wheat and Mung beans. Frequent watering during germination caused losses of Fe, between 9% and 21%, K (27% in chickpeas) and Cu (17% in chickpeas). Except for vitamin B6 in both legumes and vitamin B1 in chickpeas, accumulation of the vitamins under investigation (B1, B2, B6, C, E) was noted. Owing to these changes during germination, the nutritional value of the three seeds has been improved to various extents, most distinctly in wheat and least noticeably in chickpeas. Compared with other vegetables, sprouted seeds can be considered a valuable addition to the diet.

ADVERSE FOOD REACTIONS
Food Allergies (in Birds)
The bird should undergo a complete physical examination including appropriate diagnostics to look for any underlying pathology, which may be exacerbated by or in addition to the suspected food allergy. Not all dermal problems are related to nutritionally imbalanced diets as some birds, like cats and dogs, have allergic reactions to certain dietary ingredients. Advanced stages often result in feather picking and self-mutilation. While early signs of these food allergies are yet to be described, failure of nutritional therapy may warrant skin allergy testing and/or a simplified organic diets where ingredients such as corn and sunflower seeds are eliminated. While these ingredients have been incriminated in the development of dermal disorders65, they are regularly included in both formulated and homemade diets as primary ingredients with no reports of digestive disorders. Organic formulated diets are free from pesticide residues and preservatives that could be potentially allergenic. Common allergens for mammals (wheat, gluten, egg and dairy products) should also be eliminated from sensitive birds, although no proof exists they are a problem. A commercial organic mash diet is composed of the following ingredients: buckwheat, hulled gray millet, hulled white (proso) millet, spirulina, chia, Alfalfa, clay, sea kelp, anise, natural sources of vitamins, minerals and trace minerals. (Can be wrapped in thin slices of banana for feeding). This mash has been clinically correlated with the abatement of pruritis in several birds suspected to be suffering from food allergies. Once the mash has been accepted, the proportion of banana can be gradually decreased until eliminated. However, a bird could potentially be allergic to any dietary ingredient.

Greg J. Harrison, DVM, Dipl ABVP-Avian Dipl ECAMS
Debra McDonald, PhD, BSc (HONS I)

Guinea Pig Diet
By Dr. CF Schnabel

On a sole diet of dried organic grass and water the animals maintained an excellent growth rate. They had shiny coats and no skin problems. If they were maintained on a raw vegetable diet of carrot, lettuce, cabbage and/or canned spinach with no dried organic grass, the animals showed a gradual weight decline, skin and structural disorders as well as death in 7 weeks. These experiments point out that sprouts and/or grasses can supply essential fatty acids.

Nutrition Tables

Sprout Nutrients
This table is wider than the others. We apologize if you have to scroll horizontally to see it all.

Sprout A B1 B2 B3 B5 B6 B9 B12 C D E K Protein Minerals Aminos Notes Calorie per cup
Alfalfa x x x x x x x x x   x x 30% Ca, Cu, Mg, K, Na,
Fe, P, Zn, Mn, Se
threo,isolue,leu, lys, val as much A as carrots, chlorophyll, blood thickener 10
Adzuki x     x         x   x   25% Fe, Ca all but tryptophan    
Almond                                  
Arugula                                  
Barley Sp                               Chlorophyll  
Barley Gr                               Chlorophyll  
Black bean                                  
Buckwht groat x               x   x   15% Ca   Lecithin  
Buckwht lettuce                               Chlorophyll  
Broccoli     x     x             30%     Chlorophyll 20
Cabbage     x     x x                 Chlorophyll  
Clover x x x x x x   x x   x   30% Ca, Mg, K, Na,Fe, Zn   Trace ele. Phytoetrogens,chlorophyll  
corn                                  
cress                                  
fenugreek x     x                 30% Fe, Ca,   Breast augmenter  
Flax                                  
Garbanzo x x x     x     x   x   20% Fe, Ca, Mg     141
Garlic                                  
Lentil x x x x x x x x x   x   25% Fe, Ca, P. Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Cu,     130
Mung x x x x x x x   x   x   25% Fe, Ca, P,Mg, Mn, Na, Se, Cu     26
Oats                                  
Pea Sprouts x x x x x x x x x x x   20% Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Na, P, Zn, Cu, Mg, Se all essential    
Pea Shoots                                  
Peanut                                  
Pinto bean x x x x x x x   x         Ca, Fe, Mg,P,K,Na, Zn, Cu,Mn,Se all essential    
Pumpkin                           K, Zn all essential Chlorophyll 43
Radish x x x x x x x   x       25% Ca,Fe, K, Mg, P, Na,Zn, Cu,Mn,Se   Chlorophyll 16
Rice                                  
Rye sprout   x x x x x x x x   x   15% Mg, K,      
Rye grass                                  
Sesame                                  
Spelt                                  
Sunflower sprt                     x   4%     Omega 6  
Sunflower grn   x x x x x x x     x     Ca, Fe, K, P, Mg,Na   Chlorophyll  
Wheat sprout   x x x x x x x x   x   15% Ca, Fe, Mg, K, P,Zn, Cu,Na, Mg, Se all essential carbohydrates 214
Wheat grass                                  
Soy Beans x x x     x x x         25% Ca, Fe, P, K, Zn, Na,Cu, Mg all essential   86
Onion x               x x     20%        
Mustard x x x     x x             Ca, Mg, K      

Alfalfa Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

91.14

10

1.226

Energy

kcal

29

0

 

Energy

kj

121

0

 

Protein

g

3.99

10

0.563

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.69

10

0.141

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

3.78

0

 

Fiber, total dietary

g

2.5

0

 

Ash

g

0.40

10

0.044

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

32

10

4.659

Iron, Fe

mg

0.96

10

0.114

Magnesium, Mg

mg

27

10

3.978

Phosphorus, P

mg

70

10

7.914

Potassium, K

mg

79

10

9.790

Sodium, Na

mg

6

10

1.094

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.92

10

0.273

Copper, Cu

mg

0.157

10

0.017

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.188

10

0.019

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.6

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

8.2

10

0.678

Thiamin

mg

0.076

10

0.005

Riboflavin

mg

0.126

10

0.017

Niacin

mg

0.481

10

0.044

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.563

10

0.069

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.034

10

0.005

Folate, total

mcg

36

10

0.800

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

155

10

48.516

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

16

10

4.852

Vitamin E

mg_ATE

0.020

0

 

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.069

0

 

4:0

g

0.000

0

 

6:0

g

0.000

0

 

8:0

g

0.000

0

 

10:0

g

0.000

0

 

12:0

g

0.000

0

 

14:0

g

0.002

0

 

16:0

g

0.059

0

 

18:0

g

0.008

0

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.056

0

 

16:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.056

0

 

20:1

g

0.000

0

 

22:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.409

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.234

0

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.175

0

 

18:4

g

0.000

0

 

20:4 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

20:5 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

22:5 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

22:6 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Amino acids

Threonine

g

0.134

1

 

Isoleucine

g

0.143

1

 

Leucine

g

0.267

1

 

Lysine

g

0.214

1

 

Valine

g

0.145

1

 

Lentil Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

 

 

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

67.34

9

2.389

Energy

kcal

106

0

 

Energy

kj

444

0

 

Protein

g

8.96

9

0.605

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.55

9

0.031

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

22.14

0

 

Ash

g

1.00

9

0.075

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

25

9

0.652

Iron, Fe

mg

3.21

9

0.268

Magnesium, Mg

mg

37

9

2.682

Phosphorus, P

mg

173

9

11.944

Potassium, K

mg

322

9

22.831

Sodium, Na

mg

11

9

5.382

Zinc, Zn

mg

1.51

9

0.120

Copper, Cu

mg

0.352

9

0.020

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.506

9

0.034

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.6

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

16.5

9

1.709

Thiamin

mg

0.228

9

0.020

Riboflavin

mg

0.128

9

0.012

Niacin

mg

1.128

9

0.073

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.578

9

0.028

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.190

9

0.009

Folate, total

mcg

100

9

9.967

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

45

9

8.159

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

5

9

0.816

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.057

0

 

16:0

g

0.052

1

 

18:0

g

0.006

1

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.104

0

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.104

1

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.219

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.181

1

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.038

1

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Amino acids

Threonine

g

0.328

1

 

Isoleucine

g

0.326

1

 

Leucine

g

0.628

1

 

Lysine

g

0.712

1

 

Methionine

g

0.105

1

 

Cystine

g

0.334

1

 

Phenylalanine

g

0.442

1

 

Tyrosine

g

0.252

1

 

Valine

g

0.399

1

 

Arginine

g

0.611

1

 

Histidine

g

0.257

1

 

Alanine

g

0.356

1

 

Aspartic acid

g

1.433

1

 

Glutamic acid

g

1.258

1

 

Glycine

g

0.319

1

 

Proline

g

0.356

1

 

Serine

Mung Bean Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

90.40

8

1.586

Energy

kcal

30

0

 

Energy

kj

126

0

 

Protein

g

3.04

8

0.466

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.18

8

0.045

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

5.93

0

 

Fiber, total dietary

g

1.8

0

 

Ash

g

0.44

8

0.065

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

13

8

1.966

Iron, Fe

mg

0.91

8

0.351

Magnesium, Mg

mg

21

8

3.384

Phosphorus, P

mg

54

8

8.476

Potassium, K

mg

149

8

23.307

Sodium, Na

mg

6

4

1.449

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.41

8

0.052

Copper, Cu

mg

0.164

8

0.058

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.188

8

0.049

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.6

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

13.2

8

1.861

Thiamin

mg

0.084

8

0.014

Riboflavin

mg

0.124

8

0.020

Niacin

mg

0.749

8

0.064

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.380

4

0.082

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.088

8

0.012

Folate, total

mcg

61

16

6.866

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

21

7

2.252

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

2

7

0.225

Vitamin E

mg_ATE

0.010

0

 

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.046

0

 

4:0

g

0.000

0

 

6:0

g

0.000

0

 

8:0

g

0.000

0

 

10:0

g

0.000

0

 

12:0

g

0.000

0

 

14:0

g

0.000

1

 

16:0

g

0.032

0

 

18:0

g

0.008

0

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.022

0

 

16:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.022

0

 

20:1

g

0.000

0

 

22:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.058

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.042

0

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.016

0

 

18:4

g

0.000

0

 

20:4 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

20:5 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

22:5 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

22:6 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Phytosterols

mg

15

0

 

Amino acids

Tryptophan

g

0.037

4

 

Threonine

g

0.078

4

 

Isoleucine

g

0.132

4

 

Leucine

g

0.175

4

 

Lysine

g

0.166

4

 

Methionine

g

0.034

3

 

Cystine

g

0.017

1

 

Phenylalanine

g

0.117

4

 

Tyrosine

g

0.052

2

 

Valine

g

0.130

4

 

Arginine

g

0.197

2

 

Histidine

g

0.070

2

 

Alanine

g

0.099

1

 

Aspartic acid

g

0.479

1

 

Glutamic acid

g

0.161

1

 

Glycine

g

0.063

1

 

Serine

g

0.033

1

 

Pea Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

62.27

4

2.010

Energy

kcal

128

0

 

Energy

kj

536

0

 

Protein

g

8.80

4

0.348

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.68

4

0.036

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

28.26

0

 

Ash

g

1.14

4

0.048

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

36

4

2.776

Iron, Fe

mg

2.26

4

0.106

Magnesium, Mg

mg

56

4

1.888

Phosphorus, P

mg

165

4

7.654

Potassium, K

mg

381

4

8.700

Sodium, Na

mg

20

4

2.082

Zinc, Zn

mg

1.05

4

0.047

Copper, Cu

mg

0.272

4

0.016

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.438

4

0.015

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.6

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

10.4

8

2.649

Thiamin

mg

0.225

8

0.009

Riboflavin

mg

0.155

8

0.026

Niacin

mg

3.088

8

0.130

Pantothenic acid

mg

1.029

8

0.061

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.265

8

0.012

Folate, total

mcg

144

8

20.000

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

166

3

14.099

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

17

3

1.410

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.124

0

 

16:0

g

0.112

0

 

18:0

g

0.012

0

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.061

0

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.061

0

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.326

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.265

0

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.061

0

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Amino acids

Threonine

g

0.186

1

 

Isoleucine

g

0.171

1

 

Leucine

g

0.365

1

 

Lysine

g

0.384

1

 

Methionine

g

0.069

1

 

Cystine

g

0.155

1

 

Phenylalanine

g

0.251

1

 

Tyrosine

g

0.127

1

 

Valine

g

0.220

1

 

Arginine

g

0.484

1

 

Histidine

g

0.167

1

 

Alanine

g

0.245

1

 

Aspartic acid

g

0.656

1

 

Glutamic acid

g

1.017

1

 

Glycine

g

0.208

1

 

Proline

g

0.277

1

 

Serine

g

0.299

1

Pinto Bean Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

81.30

2

 

Energy

kcal

62

0

 

Energy

kj

259

0

 

Protein

g

5.25

2

 

Total lipid (fat)

g

0.90

2

 

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

11.60

0

 

Ash

g

0.95

2

 

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

43

2

 

Iron, Fe

mg

1.97

2

 

Magnesium, Mg

mg

53

2

 

Phosphorus, P

mg

94

2

 

Potassium, K

mg

307

2

 

Sodium, Na

mg

153

1

 

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.50

1

 

Copper, Cu

mg

0.320

0

 

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.366

0

 

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.6

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

21.7

2

 

Thiamin

mg

0.230

2

 

Riboflavin

mg

0.175

2

 

Niacin

mg

2.280

2

 

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.740

0

 

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.171

0

 

Folate, total

mcg

118

0

 

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

2

2

 

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

0

2

 

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.109

0

 

16:0

g

0.097

0

 

18:0

g

0.012

0

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.067

0

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.067

0

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.523

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.189

0

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.334

0

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Amino acids

Tryptophan

g

0.055

0

 

Threonine

g

0.220

0

 

Isoleucine

g

0.233

0

 

Leucine

g

0.377

0

 

Lysine

g

0.299

0

 

Methionine

g

0.055

0

 

Cystine

g

0.060

0

 

Phenylalanine

g

0.265

0

 

Tyrosine

g

0.181

0

 

Valine

g

0.270

0

 

Arginine

g

0.286

0

 

Histidine

g

0.147

0

 

Alanine

g

0.218

0

 

Aspartic acid

g

0.682

0

 

Glutamic acid

g

0.640

0

 

Glycine

g

0.181

0

 

Proline

g

0.212

0

 

Serine

g

0.281

0

 

Radish Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

90.07

3

2.968

Energy

kcal

43

0

 

Energy

kj

180

0

 

Protein

g

3.81

3

0.920

Total lipid (fat)

g

2.53

3

1.566

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

3.60

0

 

Ash

g

0.53

3

0.127

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

51

3

9.435

Iron, Fe

mg

0.86

3

0.211

Magnesium, Mg

mg

44

3

6.778

Phosphorus, P

mg

113

3

10.808

Potassium, K

mg

86

3

16.619

Sodium, Na

mg

6

3

1.426

Zinc, Zn

mg

0.56

3

0.159

Copper, Cu

mg

0.120

3

0.035

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.260

3

0.036

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.6

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

28.9

3

3.205

Thiamin

mg

0.102

3

0.005

Riboflavin

mg

0.103

3

0.009

Niacin

mg

2.853

3

0.390

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.733

3

0.088

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.285

3

0.057

Folate, total

mcg

95

3

11.465

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

391

3

73.877

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

39

3

7.388

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.767

0

 

14:0

g

0.003

0

 

16:0

g

0.663

0

 

18:0

g

0.095

0

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.419

0

 

16:1 undifferentiated

g

0.007

0

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.409

0

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

1.141

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.410

0

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.722

0

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Soy Bean Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

69.05

6

2.776

Energy

kcal

122

0

 

Energy

kj

510

0

 

Protein

g

13.09

6

8.068

Total lipid (fat)

g

6.70

6

0.492

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

9.57

0

 

Fiber, total dietary

g

1.1

0

 

Ash

g

1.59

6

0.125

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

67

8

5.540

Iron, Fe

mg

2.10

8

0.391

Magnesium, Mg

mg

72

8

8.830

Phosphorus, P

mg

164

8

18.788

Potassium, K

mg

484

8

62.983

Sodium, Na

mg

14

8

1.347

Zinc, Zn

mg

1.17

8

0.163

Copper, Cu

mg

0.427

8

0.065

Manganese, Mn

mg

0.702

8

0.080

Selenium, Se

mcg

0.6

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

15.3

8

1.744

Thiamin

mg

0.340

8

0.080

Riboflavin

mg

0.118

8

0.013

Niacin

mg

1.148

8

0.148

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.929

8

0.115

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.176

8

0.017

Folate, total

mcg

172

8

24.234

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

11

2

 

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

1

0

 

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.929

0

 

14:0

g

0.007

1

 

16:0

g

0.674

1

 

18:0

g

0.249

1

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

1.518

0

 

16:1 undifferentiated

g

0.013

1

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

1.492

1

 

20:1

g

0.013

1

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

3.783

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

3.338

1

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.445

1

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Amino acids

Tryptophan

g

0.159

0

 

Threonine

g

0.503

0

 

Isoleucine

g

0.580

0

 

Leucine

g

0.938

0

 

Lysine

g

0.752

0

 

Methionine

g

0.138

0

 

Cystine

g

0.157

0

 

Phenylalanine

g

0.641

0

 

Tyrosine

g

0.477

0

 

Valine

g

0.620

0

 

Arginine

g

0.905

0

 

Histidine

g

0.348

0

 

Alanine

g

0.549

0

 

Aspartic acid

g

1.774

0

 

Glutamic acid

g

1.966

0

 

Glycine

g

0.503

0

 

Proline

g

0.674

0

 

Serine

g

0.651

0

 

Wheat Sprouts

Nutrient

Units

Value per

100 grams of

edible portion

Sample

Count

Std.

Error

Proximates

Water

g

47.75

8

3.578

Energy

kcal

198

0

 

Energy

kj

828

0

 

Protein

g

7.49

8

0.382

Total lipid (fat)

g

1.27

8

0.106

Carbohydrate, by difference

g

42.53

0

 

Fiber, total dietary

g

1.1

0

 

Ash

g

0.96

8

0.055

Minerals

Calcium, Ca

mg

28

8

1.973

Iron, Fe

mg

2.14

8

0.119

Magnesium, Mg

mg

82

8

3.214

Phosphorus, P

mg

200

8

10.970

Potassium, K

mg

169

8

18.038

Sodium, Na

mg

16

8

1.570

Zinc, Zn

mg

1.65

8

0.123

Copper, Cu

mg

0.261

8

0.017

Manganese, Mn

mg

1.858

8

0.197

Selenium, Se

mcg

42.5

0

 

Vitamins

Vitamin C, total ascorbic acid

mg

2.6

8

0.448

Thiamin

mg

0.225

8

0.009

Riboflavin

mg

0.155

8

0.026

Niacin

mg

3.087

8

0.130

Pantothenic acid

mg

0.947

8

0.056

Vitamin B-6

mg

0.265

8

0.012

Folate, total

mcg

38

0

 

Vitamin B-12

mcg

0.00

0

 

Vitamin A, IU

IU

0

0

 

Vitamin A, RE

mcg_RE

0

0

 

Vitamin E

mg_ATE

0.050

0

 

Lipids

Fatty acids, total saturated

g

0.206

0

 

4:0

g

0.000

0

 

6:0

g

0.000

0

 

8:0

g

0.000

0

 

10:0

g

0.000

0

 

12:0

g

0.000

0

 

14:0

g

0.000

0

 

16:0

g

0.194

0

 

18:0

g

0.012

0

 

Fatty acids, total monounsaturated

g

0.151

0

 

16:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

18:1 undifferentiated

g

0.151

0

 

20:1

g

0.000

0

 

22:1 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

Fatty acids, total polyunsaturated

g

0.557

0

 

18:2 undifferentiated

g

0.531

0

 

18:3 undifferentiated

g

0.026

8

 

18:4

g

0.000

0

 

20:4 undifferentiated

g

0.000

0

 

20:5 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

22:5 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

22:6 n-3

g

0.000

0

 

Cholesterol

mg

0

0

 

Amino acids

Tryptophan

g

0.115

4

 

Threonine

g

0.254

4

 

Isoleucine

g

0.287

4

 

Leucine

g

0.507

4

 

Lysine

g

0.245

4

 

Methionine

g

0.116

3

 

Cystine

g

0.134

4

 

Phenylalanine

g

0.350

4

 

Tyrosine

g

0.275

4

 

Valine

g

0.361

4

 

Arginine

g

0.425

4

 

Histidine

g

0.196

4

 

Alanine

g

0.295

4

 

Aspartic acid

g

0.453

4

 

Glutamic acid

g

1.871

4

 

Glycine

g

0.306

4

 

Proline

g

0.674

4

 

Serine

g

0.341

4

 

 

Quite a bit of the content above came to us via our friends at International Specialty Supply (ISS). ISS sells supplies and equipment to professional (commercial) sprout growers. Though we do not always agree with them - specifically - about the value of organic seed as it relates to sprout safety, and their position as regards regulations imposed by the FDA on commercial sprouters (the organic growers should have different regulations, the way we see it), we do agree wholeheartedly with them - that sprouts are an amazing source of nutrition. ISS is huge in the sprout industry, as you will see if you visit their site. You will find quite a lot more information on their Nutrition Research page.